Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Multiple Drug-Resistant Strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Mastitis-Infected Goats: An Alternative Approach for Antimicrobial Therapy
In this study, three of the representative EDCs, 17beta-estradiol, bisphenol A, and styrene, were employed to find their mode of toxic actions in E. coli. To accomplish this, four different stress response genes, recA, katG, fabA, and grpE genes, were used as a representative for DNA, oxidative, membrane, or protein damage, respectively. The expression levels of these four genes were quantified using a real-time RT-PCR after challenge with three different EDCs individually. Bisphenol A and styrene caused high-level expression of recA and katG genes, respectively, whereas 17beta-estradiol made no significant changes in expression of any of those genes. These results lead to the classification of the mode of toxic actions of EDCs on E. coli.