Analysis of the genomic organization of the human cationic amino acid transporters CAT-1, CAT-2 and CAT-4

  title={Analysis of the genomic organization of the human cationic amino acid transporters CAT-1, CAT-2 and CAT-4},
  author={Rainer Hammermann and Gernot Brunn and Kurt Rack{\'e}},
  journal={Amino Acids},
Summary. By screening nucleotide databases, sequences containing the complete genes of the human cationic amino acid transporters (hCATs) 1, 2 and 4 were identified. Analysis of the genomic organization revealed that hCAT-2 consists of 12 translated exons and most likely of 2 untranslated exons. The splice variants hCAT-2A and hCAT-2B use exon 7 and 6, respectively. The hCAT-2 gene structure is closely related to the structure of hCAT-1, suggesting that they belong to a common gene family. hCAT… 
Characterization of chicken CAT-2 isoforms
Lysine and arginine transport is primarily mediated by cationic amino acid transporters (CATs) in cells. The chicken CAT-2 (cCAT-2) transcript is alternatively spliced to three isoforms.
Regulation of Expression and Activity of l-Arginine Transporters by Nutrients and Hormones: A Focus in Transcriptional Mechanisms Regulated by Glucose and Insulin
l-arginine transport is essential for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and regulation of vascular health in mammals. This semi-essential amino acid is transported into the cells by several proteins
Amino Acid Transport
All cells need a supply of amino acids, and membrane transporters for their uptake are fundamental membrane transport proteins. Unlike the sugars, nucleotides or other metabolically important
12 Amino Acid Transport
All cells need a supply of amino acids, and membrane transporters for their uptake are fundamental membrane transport proteins. Unlike the sugars, nucleotides or other metabolically important
Insulin-Increased L-Arginine Transport Requires A2A Adenosine Receptors Activation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelium
Insulin modulation of hCAT-1 expression and activity requires functional A2AAR in HUVECs, a mechanism that may be applicable to diseases associated with fetal insulin resistance, such as gestational diabetes.
Insulin‐stimulated L‐arginine transport requires SLC7A1 gene expression and is associated with human umbilical vein relaxation
It is suggested that insulin induces human umbilical vein relaxation by increasing HUVEC L‐arginine transport via hCATs (likely hC AT‐1) most likely requiring Sp1‐activated SLC7A1 expression.
Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity by protein-protein interaction.
  • Yunchao Su
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current pharmaceutical design
  • 2014
Regulation of eNOS by protein-protein interactions would provide potential targets for pharmacological interventions in NO-compromised cardiovascular diseases.
Intermedin1-53 activates L-arginine/nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide pathway in rat aortas.
L-Arginine/Nitric Oxide Pathway and KCa Channels in Endothelial Cells: A Mini-Review
The endothelium is an organ with a key role in the maintenance of cardiovascular health through the regulation of vascular tone, vascular resistance, blood flow, and arterial pressure. These


Human cationic amino acid transporters hCAT-1, hCAT-2A, and hCAT-2B: three related carriers with distinct transport properties.
CAT-2 proteins demonstrate a higher interspecies conservation than CAT-1 proteins that are overall 86.5% identical between mouse and human and differ by seven residues in the functional domain, reflected by the functional similarity of the human carriers with their mouse homologues.
Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of human cationic amino acid transporter 2 (HCAT2).
The HCAT2 gene was assigned to human chromosome 8p21.3-p22.3 and Hydropathy plots indicated that the translated protein is predicted to have 14 transmembrane domains with three potential N-glycosylation sites.
Transporters for cationic amino acids in animal cells: discovery, structure, and function.
The roles of these transporters in nutrition, endocrinology, nitric oxide biology, and immunology, as well as in the genetic diseases cystinuria and lysinuric protein intolerance, are reviewed.
A mammalian arginine/lysine transporter uses multiple promoters.
The data indicate that the several distinct 5' mCAT-2 mRNA isoforms result from transcriptional initiation at distinct promoters and permit flexible transcriptional regulation of this cationic AA transporter gene.
The human cationic amino acid transporter (ATRC1): physical and genetic mapping to 13q12-q14.
Cloning and Characterization of a Brain-specific Cationic Amino Acid Transporter*
Results indicated a role of rCAT3 in the system y+ transporter activity in the nervous tissue and were specific for cationic amino acids as evidenced from the inhibition by L-arginine, L-lysine, and L-ornithine.
The gene encoding a cationic amino acid transporter (SLC7A4) maps to the region deleted in the velocardiofacial syndrome.
A novel human gene, SLC7A4, encoding a solute carrier family 7 [cationic amino acid (CAA) CAT-4 transporter, y+ system] member 4 is identified and an abundant transcript was detected in brain, testis, and placenta.
A New Member of the Cationic Amino Acid Transporter Family Is Preferentially Expressed in Adult Mouse Brain*
In oocyte injection assays, CAT3 cRNA exhibited a saturable, sodium ion-independent transport activity with high affinity forl-arginine and l-lysine, indicating that CAT3 is subject to trans-stimulation.
Transport of cationic amino acids by the mouse ecotropic retrovirus receptor
A coincidence in the positions of the first eight putative membrane-spanning domains found in the virus receptor1 and in two related proteins2, the arginine2–4 and histidine2,3,5 permeases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported, but not in any other proteins identified by computer-based sequence comparison of the Gen Bank data base.
Identification of a low affinity, high capacity transporter of cationic amino acids in mouse liver.