To evaluate characteristics of the responders to chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, clinicopathological findings of the responders (9 cases) and those of the non-responders (58 cases) have been compared. As for clinical characteristics, no difference was found in age and sex between the two groups. The responders were, however, restricted to the good cases in respect to performance status (PS) and hepatic reserve based on Child's classification. Concerning characteristics of tumors, no significant difference between the two groups was observed in size and number of tumors, or in the frequency of portal vein thrombosis and that of remote metastasis. There was no difference between them in chemotherapy regimen, either. It was concluded that PS and hepatic reserve might be the most important factors determining the efficacy of chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.