Analysis of swainsonine: extraction methods, detection, and measurement in populations of locoweeds (Oxytropis spp.).

@article{Gardner2001AnalysisOS,
  title={Analysis of swainsonine: extraction methods, detection, and measurement in populations of locoweeds (Oxytropis spp.).},
  author={D. Gardner and R. Molyneux and M. Ralphs},
  journal={Journal of agricultural and food chemistry},
  year={2001},
  volume={49 10},
  pages={
          4573-80
        }
}
An analytical method has been developed to measure the locoweed toxin, swainsonine, in locoweed plant material. Dry ground plant samples were extracted using a small-scale liquid/liquid extraction procedure followed by isolation of the swainsonine by solid phase extraction with a cation-exchange resin. Detection and quantitation of the swainsonine were accomplished using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass… Expand
Analysis of Swainsonine and Swainsonine N-Oxide as Trimethylsilyl Derivatives by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Their Relative Occurrence in Plants Toxic to Livestock.
TLDR
The measured concentrations of swainsonine N-oxide relative to swains onine only slightly increases the actual toxicity of the various plant samples in a combined assay of both compounds. Expand
A comparison of alternative sample preparation procedures for the analysis of swainsonine using LC-MS/MS.
TLDR
A commercially available SPE cartridge can be used to replace the previously used ion-exchange resin for swainsonine analysis and for very rapid analyses the SPE procedure can be eliminated and a simple, single solvent extraction step used for sample preparation. Expand
Determination of swainsonine in the endophytic Undifilum fungi by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detector.
TLDR
Application of the developed analytical procedure to determine swains onine content in the endophytic Undifilum fungi samples ensured its suitability for the routine analysis of swainsonine. Expand
Swainsoninine Concentrations and Endophyte Amounts of Undifilum oxytropis in Different Plant Parts of Oxytropis sericea
TLDR
Findings provide evidence as to why plants in the same population accumulate different concentrations of swainsonine, and they have important implications for sampling of locoweed plants. Expand
Detection of swainsonine and isolation of the endophyte Undifilum from the major locoweeds in Inner Mongolia
TLDR
Locoweeds are Astragalus and Oxytropis species that contain the toxic alkaloid swainsonine, causing widespread poisoning of livestock in Inner Mongolia, and the quinolizidine alkaloids, sophoridine, sophocarpine, and sophoramine were detected in Sophora alopecuroides as previously reported. Expand
A survey of swainsonine content in Swainsona species
TLDR
Swainsonine was detected in 9 of the 41 Swainsona species, eight of which had not been determined to contain swains onine previously using modern instrumentation, and will serve as a reference for diagnostic purposes and risk assessment. Expand
Production of swainsonine by fungal endophytes of locoweed.
TLDR
Morphological evidence and sequence analysis of the ITS region suggest that the endophytes are most closely related to Embellisia, however, with the paucity of Embell isia species represented in sequence databases, precise taxonomic placement will await further study. Expand
Preparative isolation of swainsonine from locoweed: extraction and purification procedures.
TLDR
The trihydroxy indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine, a plant toxin with potent alpha-mannosidase-inhibitory activity and chemotherapeutic potential, was isolated in gram quantities from locoweed by continuous liquid/liquid extraction procedure and purified by formation of the chloroform-soluble methylboronate derivative. Expand
Ontogenetic variation of volatiles and antioxidant activity in leaves of Astragalus compactus Lam. (Fabaceae)
TLDR
The antioxidant activity and phenolic content were related to the physiological stage and the highest amount detected at fructification phase and the ontogenetic variations of phenolic contents and antioxidant properties are largely contributed by climatic factors such as temperature and solar radiation. Expand
A swainsonine survey of North American Astragalus and Oxytropis taxa implicated as locoweeds.
TLDR
Forty of the fifty-three swainsonine-positive taxa had not been determined to contain swains onine previously using liquid or gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and will serve as a reference for risk assessment and diagnostic purposes. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 18 REFERENCES
Analysis and distribution of swainsonine and related polyhydroxyindolizidine alkaloids by thin layer chromatography
A spray reagent which is sensitive and specific for polyhydroxyindolizidine glycosidase inhibitors such as swainsonine and castanospermine has been developed for their visualization on thin layerExpand
The pathogenesis and toxicokinetics of locoweed (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.) poisoning in livestock.
TLDR
All tissues of poisoned animals contained swainsonine, and the clearance rates from most tissues was about 20 hours (T1/2 half life), which suggests that poisoned animals should be allowed a 28-day withdrawal to insure complete swains onine clearance. Expand
Rapid detection of polyhydroxyalkaloid mono- and diglycosides in crude plant extracts by direct quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry
Direct MS analysis, utilizing first-order MS and subsequent MS2 and MS3 product ion analyses, is shown to provide a rapid means of characterizing polyhydroxyalkaloid glycosides and aglycones inExpand
Dose Response of Sheep Poisoned with Locoweed (Oxytropis Sericea)
  • B. Stegelmeier, L. James, +4 authors R. Molyneux
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • 1999
TLDR
Both the clinical and histologic lesions, especially cerebellar lesions are suggestive of neurologic dysfunction even at low daily swainsonine doses of 0.2 mg/kg, suggesting that prolonged locoweed exposure,Even at low doses, results in significant production losses as well as histologic and functional damage. Expand
Locoweeds: effects on reproduction in livestock.
TLDR
The pathophysiological effects of locoweed consumption altered breeding behavior, changed libido, and inhibited normal spermatogenesis in rams and sheep, and some of these effects were permanent and progressive. Expand
Biosynthesis of swainsonine in the diablo locoweed (Astragalus oxyphyrus)
Abstract In addition to the toxic indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine, the diablo locoweed (Astragalu oxyphysus) has been found to produce [1,8a-trans]-1-hydroxyindolizidine andExpand
Production of hybrid glycoproteins and accumulation of oligosaccharides in the brain of sheep and pigs administered swainsonine or locoweed.
TLDR
The results presented here indicate that the feeding led to alteration in the structure of brain glycoproteins, and the production of hybrid oligosaccharides occurred despite the apparent absence of mannosidase II in brain. Expand
LYSOSOMAL STORAGE IN SWAINSONA SPP. TOXICOSIS: AN INDUCED MANNOSIDOSIS
TLDR
It is concluded that ingestion of Swainsona induces a lysosomal storage disease, biochemically and morphologically similar to genetically determined mannosidosis. Expand
Electrospray and APCI analysis of polyhydroxyalkaloidsusing positive and negative collision induced dissociation experiments in aquadrupole ion trap
Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) and electrospray (ES) are compared as ion sources in the analysis of polyhydroxyalkaloids (PHAs) by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS)Expand
Comparative Pathology of Astragalus (Locoweed) and Swainsona Poisoning in Sheep
TLDR
The toxic effect on pregnant two of Swainsona galegifolia and Astragalus pubentissimus and A. Ientiginosus and the similarities suggest that the toxic agent or agents may be the same in both genera. Expand
...
1
2
...