Spike responses of area 4 neurons in the projection area of the contralateral forelimb to acoustic stimulation (1 sec), which became the conditioned stimulus after training, and to dropping of the platform beneath the test limb, which served as reinforcing stimulus, were studied in trained and untrained cats. Responses only of those neurons which were activated during a passive movement caused by dropping of the platform were studied. In trained animals the number of these neurons which responded to the conditioned stimulus if a reflex occurred was 100%, and in the absence of conditioned-reflex movements to the conditioned stimulus it was 70%, much greater than the number of neurons responding to the same acoustic stimulus in untrained animals (45%). On peristimulus histograms of responses of the test neuron population in untrained and trained animals to acoustic stimulation (in the absence of movements) only the initial spike response with a latent period of under 50 msec and a duration of up to 100 msec could be clearly distinguished. In the presence of reflex movement multicomponent spike responses were observed: an initial spike response and early and late after-responses linked with performance of conditioned-reflex limb flexion. Early after-responses 100–200 msec in duration, appearing after a latent period of 100–150 msec, were linked to the time of application of the conditioned stimulus, whereas the appearance and duration of late after-responses were determined by the time of onset of conditioned-reflex movement. The magnitude of the neuronal response to reinforcement in trained animals does not depend on the appearance of the conditioned movement.