OBJECTIVE To summarize the results of endoscopic screening of esophageal, gastric cardiac and gastric cancers in the high-risk population, and analyze the influencing factors such as age, gender and biopsy rate on their detection and early diagnosis rates. METHODS Nine high incidence cities and counties of esophageal cancer in Henan province were included in this study. People aged 40-69 years were set to the target population. Excluding contraindications for gastroscopy, in accordance with the national technical scheme of early cancer diagnosis and treatment, gastroscopic screening and biopsy pathology for human esophageal, cardiac and gastric cancers were carried out. RESULTS During the 3-year period, a total of 40 156 subjects were screened. Among them, 18 459 cases of various precancerous lesions (46.0%) were detected. The cancer detection rate was 2.3% (916 cases), including 763 cases of early cancers. The diagnosis rate of early cancers was 83.3%. Precancerous lesions were detected in 9297 cases (23.2%) for esophagus and 9162 cases (22.8%) for gastric cardia as well as stomach, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study demonstrate that endoscopic screening is feasible for early detection, diagnosis and treatment of esophageal, gastric cardia and gastric cancers among high risk population in high incidence area. Exploration analysis of relevant affecting factors may help to further improve the screening project for early diagnosis and treatment of those cancers.