Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA

  title={Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA},
  author={Richard E. Green and Johannes Krause and Susan E. Ptak and Adrian W. Briggs and Michael T. Ronan and Jan Fredrik Simons and Lei Du and Michael Wayland Egholm and Jonathan Rothberg and Maja Paunovi{\'c} and Svante P{\"a}{\"a}bo},
Neanderthals are the extinct hominid group most closely related to contemporary humans, so their genome offers a unique opportunity to identify genetic changes specific to anatomically fully modern humans. We have identified a 38,000-year-old Neanderthal fossil that is exceptionally free of contamination from modern human DNA. Direct high-throughput sequencing of a DNA extract from this fossil has thus far yielded over one million base pairs of hominoid nuclear DNA sequences. Comparison with… 

Neanderthal DNA and modern human origins

Neanderthal genome sees first light

A 38,000-year-old Neanderthal bone of sufficiently high quality to allow the extraction of more than a million base pairs has now been identified and comparison with the chimp and human genomes reveals that Neanderthal and human ancestors had a small effective population size.

A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome

The genomic data suggest that Neandertals mixed with modern human ancestors some 120,000 years ago, leaving traces of Ne andertal DNA in contemporary humans, suggesting that gene flow from Neand Bertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other.

Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo

This genome sequence of an ancient human obtained from ∼4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit.

Ancient DNA and human history

Analysis of genomic data obtained by sequencing hominin fossils with particular emphasis on the unique information that ancient DNA can provide about the demographic history of humans and the authors' closest relatives reveals historical demographic patterns in a way that could be resolved by analyzing present-day genomes alone.

Paleogenomics of Archaic Hominins

Drafting Human Ancestry: What Does the Neanderthal Genome Tell Us about Hominid Evolution? Commentary on Green et al. (2010)

Ten years after the first draft versions of the human genome were announced, technical progress in both DNA sequencing and ancient DNA analyses has allowed a research team to complete this task from infinitely more difficult hominid samples: a few pieces of bone originating from the authors' closest, albeit extinct, relatives, the Neanderthals.

Twelve years of Neandertal genetic discoveries: state-of-the-art and future challenges

This chapter reviews current knowledge on NeandertalDNA sequences and presents future challenges related to Ne andertal genomics.

Significance of Neandertal and Denisovan Genomes in Human Evolution

Genomes recovered from Neandertals and from a previously unknown archaic human population represented at Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains help to understand the diversity of the Middle Pleistocene ancestors of late archaic and modern humans worldwide.



Molecular analysis of Neanderthal DNA from the northern Caucasus

Phylogenetic analysis places the two Neanderthals from the Caucasus and western Germany together in a clade that is distinct from modern humans, suggesting that their mtDNA types have not contributed to the modern human mtDNA pool.

Nuclear DNA sequences from late Pleistocene megafauna.

The nuclear sequences retrieved from the mammoths suggest that mammoths were more similar to Asian elephants than to African elephants and under some circumstances, nucleotide sequence differences between alleles found within one individual can be distinguished from DNA sequence variation caused by postmortem DNA damage.

DNA sequence of the mitochondrial hypervariable region II from the neandertal type specimen.

The results support the concept that the Neandertal mtDNA evolved separately from that of modern humans for a substantial amount of time and lends no support to the idea that they contributed mtDNA to contemporary modern humans.

Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome

It is found that the patterns of evolution in human and chimpanzee protein-coding genes are highly correlated and dominated by the fixation of neutral and slightly deleterious alleles.

No Evidence of Neandertal mtDNA Contribution to Early Modern Humans

The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA, and in combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Ne andertals to early modern human humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution.

Metagenomics to Paleogenomics: Large-Scale Sequencing of Mammoth DNA

The high percentage of endogenous DNA recoverable from this single mammoth would allow for completion of its genome, unleashing the field of paleogenomics.

Genomic Sequencing of Pleistocene Cave Bears

The metagenomic approach used here establishes the feasibility of ancient DNA genome sequencing programs and revealed the evolutionary relationship of cave bear and modern bear sequences.

Neandertal evolutionary genetics: mitochondrial DNA data from the iberian peninsula.

An estimate of effective population size indicates that the genetic history of the Neandertals was not shaped by an extreme population bottleneck associated with the glacial maximum of 130,000 years ago and fits chronologically with a proposed speciation event of Homo neanderthalensis.