Analysis of mtDNA variation in African populations reveals the most ancient of all human continent-specific haplogroups.

@article{Chen1995AnalysisOM,
  title={Analysis of mtDNA variation in African populations reveals the most ancient of all human continent-specific haplogroups.},
  author={Yuntao Chen and Antonio Torroni and Laurent Excoffier and A. Silvana Santachiara-Benerecetti and Douglas C. Wallace},
  journal={American journal of human genetics},
  year={1995},
  volume={57 1},
  pages={133-49}
}
mtDNA sequence variation was examined in 140 Africans, including Pygmies from Zaire and Central African Republic (C.A.R.) and Mandenkalu, Wolof, and Pular from Senegal. More than 76% of the African mtDNAs (100% of the Pygmies and 67.3% of the Senegalese) formed one major mtDNA cluster (haplogroup L) defined by an African-specific HpaI site gain at nucleotide pair (np) 3592. Additional mutations subdivided haplogroup L into two subhaplogroups, each encompassing both Pygmy and Senegalese mtDNAs… CONTINUE READING
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