Basic Study for Ultrasound-Based Navigation for Pedicle Screw Insertion Using Transmission and Backscattered Methods
The ultrasonic scattering mechanism in cancellous bone is investigated theoretically and a model describing the frequency dependence of ultrasonic scattering from cancellous bone is presented. The ultrasonic backscatter coefficient (BSC) of bovine tibiae, human calcanei in vitro and in vivo, were measured and discussed. The data of BSC were also fitted by polynomial. The results demonstrate that BSC is a nonlinear function of frequency and increases with frequency. A good agreement was obtained between BSC values from theory and experiment. Also, the high correlation coefficient between BSC and bone mineral density was obtained, r=0.85+/-0.07 (mean+/-SD) (n=15, p<0.001). Based on the values of BSC, the status of cancellous bone and the degree of osteoporotic fracture risk may be assessed.