In planta cleavage of carotenoids by Arabidopsis carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 in transgenic rice plants
Novel constitutive gene promoters are essential components of crop biotechnology. Our analysis of five such promoters, APX, SCP1, PGD1, R1G1B, and EIF5, in transgenic rice plants is reported here. The five promoter regions were linked to the gfp reporter gene and transformed into rice. Using fluorescent microscopy and q-RT-PCR, promoter activities were analysed in comparison with OsCc1, Act1, and ZmUbi1, previously characterized as strong constitutive promoters. The APX and PGD1 promoters direct high levels of gene expression in all tissues and stages, producing GFP at levels of up to 1.3% of the total soluble protein. PGD1 is particularly active in flowers and mature roots. The R1G1B is active in the whole grain including the embryo, endosperm, and aleurone layer, and thus represents a constitutive promoter with activity in whole seeds that has not been described previously. The ZmUbi1 and R1G1B promoters are markedly less active in young roots and mature leaves whilst the APX, PGD1, OsCc1, and Act1 promoters are highly active in both vegetative and reproductive tissues. Overall, our results demonstrate that APX, PGD1, and R1G1B are novel gene promoters that are highly active at all stages of plant growth with distinct levels of activity.