A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic assay was developed for the quantitative determination of major erythromycin components and their potential metabolites or degradation products in plasma and urine. An ether extract of alkalized plasma sample was chromatographed on a reversed-phase column and the components in the column effluent were monitored by an electrochemical detector. The recovery of the drug from extraction was virtually 100%. The detection limits for erythromycin A in plasma were 5-10 ng/ml and 30 ng/ml using 1 and 0.2 ml of sample, respectively. For urine samples, a simple one-step deproteinization with two volumes of acetonitrile was satisfactory for analysis. The method has been evaluated in plasma and urine from dogs receiving oral or intravenous erythromycin A. The standard curves for potential metabolites or degradation products were not constructed due to the lack of sufficient samples.