Drug-resistance genotypes were investigated in a patient under treatment with anti-HIV drugs. Since the drug resistance-associated mutations in plasma HIV-1 RNA and proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were inconsistent, changes were followed over time, and the discrepancy was shown to persist for a long period. In plasma HIV-1 RNA, D67N, K70R, T215Y, and Y188L were present in the reverse transcriptase (RT) region, and two primary mutations, I84V and L90M, were noted in the protease (Pro) region. In contrast, in proviral DNA, no drug resistance-associated mutations were found in the RT region, and mutations such as L90L/M were only infrequently present in the Pro region. This situation persisted for more than 3 years. In addition, sequencing analysis of the V3 loop in the envelope gene showed that non-syncytium-inducing/macrophage-tropic viruses contribute to acquisition of drug resistance. In this study, drug-resistant viruses were produced primarily at macrophages, and drug-sensitive viruses were maintained in PBMCs as a reservoir.