Analogous mechanisms of selection and updating in declarative and procedural working memory: Experiments and a computational model

  title={Analogous mechanisms of selection and updating in declarative and procedural working memory: Experiments and a computational model},
  author={Klaus Oberauer and Alessandra S. Souza and Michel Druey and Miriam Gade},
  journal={Cognitive Psychology},

Analogous selection processes in declarative and procedural working memory: N-2 list-repetition and task-repetition costs

Assessment of evidence for n-2 list-repetition costs across eight experiments in which participants switched between memory lists to perform speeded classifications, mental arithmetic, or a local recognition test shows analogous processing principles in declarative and procedural WM, and questions the relevance of inhibitory processes for efficient switching between mental sets.

A Common Capacity Limitation for Response and Item Selection in Working Memory

  • M. Janczyk
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2017
The present study focused on the selection of single items in declarative and single responses in procedural WM, and predicted that item switch costs are present with a long but not with a short stimulus onset asynchrony.

Dissociating working memory updating and automatic updating: The reference-back paradigm.

The results replicated the separate effects of WM updating and automatic updating on performance, and they provided behavioral evidence for a gating mechanism that separates WM from long-term memory.

The Role of Working Memory Gating in Task Switching: A Procedural Version of the Reference-Back Paradigm

The results of two experiments demonstrated that the cost of gate opening was eliminated in task switching trials, implying that both processes operate in parallel.

The Nature of Task Set Representations in Working Memory

Results indicate that even highly familiar S-R settings are maintained in working memory, albeit in a compressed manner, presumably through cues to long-term memory representations, suggesting that the establishment of effective retrieval structures itself is a capacity-limited process.

Working memory updating occurs independently of the need to maintain task-context: accounting for triggering updating in the AX-CPT paradigm

A version of the AX-CPT paradigm was used to examine a recent proposal in the literature, suggesting that updating is triggered whenever the maintenance of the context is necessary for task performance (context-dependent tasks).

N–2 repetition leads to a cost within working memory and a benefit outside it

  • Yoav Kessler
  • Psychology
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2018
Removal, demonstrated by phenomena such as n–2 repetition costs, is proposed to be a marker for the utilization of working memory within a given task and automatic formation and updating of representation outside working memory does not involve removal.



Processing of representations in declarative and procedural working memory

The article investigates the relation between declarative and procedural working memory (WM) and two experiments test the assumption that representations in the two subsystems are selected for processing in analogous ways, and the findings support the hypothesis of two analogous WM subsystems.

Design for a working memory.

Selective attention to elements in working memory.

Analysis revealed that the object switch cost increased with memory set size; that there were (smaller) switch costs when the switch was to an item of the same type; that repeating an arithmetic operation has the same effect as repeating the object it is applied to; and that object switching is not mediated by backward inhibition of the previously focused object.

Control of the contents of working memory--a comparison of two paradigms and two age groups.

  • K. Oberauer
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2005
Old adults showed the same flexibility in the arithmetic updating task but seemed somewhat less able or inclined to temporarily move information into the activated part of LTM in the modified Sternberg task.

Updating of Working Memory: Lingering Bindings

With one exception, updating times did not increase, and recall of final values did not decrease, over successive updating steps, thus providing little evidence for proactive interference building up cumulatively.

Available but unattended conceptual information in working memory: temporarily active semantic content or persistent memory for prior operations?

  • D. WoltzC. Was
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2007
A persistent, operation-specific, procedural account of available but unattended conceptual information in working memory is investigated following working memory task demands.

Task-set switching and long-term memory retrieval.

  • U. MayrR. Kliegl
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2000
Testing the hypothesis of a close relationship between the intentional component of task-set switching and long-term memory (LTM) retrieval and results were consistent with the hypothesis that the intentional switch-cost component reflects the time demands of retrieving appropriate task rules from LTM.

Serial attention within working memory

Alternative visual and conceptual repetition-priming and memory retrieval explanations for the cost involved in switching between items in WM are addressed.

Access to information in working memory: exploring the focus of attention.

  • K. Oberauer
  • Psychology, Computer Science
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2002
The results support a model distinguishing 3 states of representations in working memory: the activated part of long-term memory, a capacity limited region of direct access, and a focus of attention.

Selection of objects and tasks in working memory

The number of objects in working memory affected object-switch costs but not task- switch costs, counter to the notion of a general resource of executive attention.