Analog Implementations of Auditory Models

  title={Analog Implementations of Auditory Models},
  author={Richard F. Lyon},
  • R. Lyon
  • Published in HLT 19 February 1991
  • Computer Science
The challenge of making cost-effective implementations of auditory models has led us to pursue an analog VLSI micro-power approach. Experiments with the first few generations of analog cochlea chips showed some of both the potential and the problems of this approach. The inherent exponential behavior of MOS transistors in the subthreshold or weak-inversion region leads to nonlinear filter circuits, in which the small-signal and large-signal behaviors can be quite different. Early problems with… 
Improved implementation of the silicon cochlea
The original 'Analog electronic cochlea' of R.F. Lyon and C.A. Mead (Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Processing, vol.36, no.7, p.1119-34, 1988) used a cascade of second-order filter sections in
Analog very large-scale integrated (VLSI) implementation of a model of amplitude-modulation sensitivity in the auditory brainstem.
The implementation is based on a model of amplitude-modulation sensitivity in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) previously described by Hewitt and Meddis and demonstrates the feasibility of using analog VLSI to build and test auditory models that use large numbers of component neurons.
CCD correlators for auditory models
  • R. Lyon
  • Engineering
    [1991] Conference Record of the Twenty-Fifth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems & Computers
  • 1991
Surface-channel charge-coupled devices (CCDs) provide a mechanism for analog signal delay that can be built using an ordinary double-poly CMOS digital process, such as offered by Orbit through MOSIS.
Analogue VLSI implementations of two dimensional, nonlinear, active cochlea models
This paper presents results from integrated circuit (IC) implementations of the active, nonlinear, two dimensional (2D) silicon cochlea, and provides the foundations for a silicon coChlea that can be used to better understand the biological co chlea as well as explore higher auditory centres.
A Biomimetic, 4.5 $\mu$W, 120+ dB, Log-Domain Cochlea Channel With AGC
The design and performance evaluation of a new analog CMOS cochlea channel of increased biorealism that implements a recently proposed transfer function, namely the One-Zero Gammatone filter (or OZGF), and a new low-power automatic gain control circuit that adapts the gain of the channel according to the input signal strength, thereby extending significantly its input dynamic range.
Analogue CMOS Cochlea Systems: A Historic Retrospective
For more than twenty-five years, the bionics community (and particularly the VLSI engineering community) has been performing extensive research to understand, model and design in silicon the
Silicon Models of the Auditory Pathway
While neuromorphic engineers extensively develop and use computer models of neural systems, which are generally less expensive and faster to create, the main goal is to implement the models in electronic hardware to allow models to interact with the world in real time.
A Decimated Electronic Cochlea on a Reconfigurable Platform
Electronic cochlea models are used for physiological modeling as well as in many signal processing tasks such as pitch detection and speech recognition. Hardware based electronic cochlea systems
An FPGA-Based Electronic Cochlea
A module generator which can produce an FPGA-based implementation of an electronic cochlea filter with arbitrary precision is presented and can be used as an accelerator for research in audition or as the front-end for embedded auditory signal processing systems.
A Low-Power Wide-Linear-Range Transconductance Amplifier
The linear range of approximately ±75mV of traditional subthreshold transconductance amplifiers istoo small for certain applications—for example, for filtersin electronic cochleas, where it is


Analog VLSI model of binaural hearing
A working analog VLSI chip that implements this model of early auditory processing in the brain is described, a 100000-transistor integrated circuit that computes the stereausis representation in real time, using continuous-time analog processing.
An analog electronic cochlea
  • R. Lyon, C. Mead
  • Computer Science, Physics
    IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process.
  • 1988
An analog electronic cochlea has been built in CMOS VLSI technology using micropower techniques and Measurements on the test chip suggest that the circuit matches both the theory and observations from real coChleas.
Silicon modeling of pitch perception.
  • J. Lazzaro, C. Mead
  • Computer Science, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1989
An integrated circuit that models human pitch perception is designed and tested, and chip output approximates human performance in response to a variety of classical pitch-perception stimuli.
Computational models of neural auditory processing
Models of pitch perception, binaural directional perception, and sound separation are being based on the cochlear and neural models, and are used in support of related speech recognition and hearing research.
Analog VLSI and neural systems
This chapter discusses a simple circuit that can generate a sinusoidal response and calls this circuit the second-order section, which can be used to generate any response that can be represented by two poles in the complex plane, where the two poles have both real and imaginary parts.
Automatic Gain Control in Cochlear Mechanics
This work proposes a modeling approach based on explicitly recognizing the purpose of the strong nonlinearity of the cochlea as an automatic gain control (AGC) that serves to map a huge dynamic range of physical stimuli into the limited dynamicrange of nerve firings.
Stereausis: binaural processing without neural delays.
A neural network model is proposed for the binaural processing of interaural-time and level cues and computes approximately the cross correlation between the responses of the two cochleas by combining an ipsilateral input at a given characteristic frequency with contralateral inputs from locally off-CF locations.
A Silicon Model Of Auditory Localization
A silicon model of the time-coding pathway of the owl is built, which models the structure as well as the function of the pathway; most subcircuits in the chip have an anatomical correlate.
Cochlear Hydrodynamics Demystified
Wave propagation in the mammalian cochlea (inner ear) is modeled as a unidirectional cascade of simple filters. The transfer functions of the low-order filter stages are completely determined by the
Automatic Gain Control in Cochlear Mechanics," Mechanics and Biophysics of Hearing
  • (June 1990 Madison workshop proceedings)
  • 1990