Analgesic pharmacology: II. Specific analgesics.

@article{Phillips2004AnalgesicPI,
  title={Analgesic pharmacology: II. Specific analgesics.},
  author={William James Phillips and Bradford L. Currier},
  journal={The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons},
  year={2004},
  volume={12 4},
  pages={221-33}
}
Methods of treatment are different for acute and chronic pain. For acute pain, analgesics such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates are commonly used, sometimes combined with regional anesthesia, such as peripheral nerve block or peridural local anesthesia. The mechanism of transition from an acute to a chronic pain state is poorly understood. Only NMDA receptor antagonists and epidural morphine have shown relatively consistent results as preemptive analgesics. Agents more… CONTINUE READING