Anaerobic Bacterial Fermentation Products Increase Tuberculosis Risk in Antiretroviral-Drug-Treated HIV Patients.

@article{Segal2017AnaerobicBF,
  title={Anaerobic Bacterial Fermentation Products Increase Tuberculosis Risk in Antiretroviral-Drug-Treated HIV Patients.},
  author={Leopoldo N Segal and Jose C. Clemente and Yonghua Li and Chunhai Ruan and Jane Cao and Mauricio Danckers and Alison M Morris and Sarah Tapyrik and Benjamin G Wu and Philip T. Diaz and Gregory L Calligaro and Rodney Dawson and Richard N van Zyl-Smit and Keertan Dheda and William Rom and Michael D. Weiden},
  journal={Cell host & microbe},
  year={2017},
  volume={21 4},
  pages={530-537.e4}
}
Despite the immune-reconstitution with antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected individuals remain highly susceptible to tuberculosis (TB) and have an enrichment of oral anaerobes in the lung. Products of bacterial anaerobic metabolism, like butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), induce regulatory T cells (Tregs). We tested whether SCFAs contribute to poor TB control in a longitudinal cohort of ART-treated HIV-infected South Africans. Increase in serum SCFAs was associated with… CONTINUE READING
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