Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence

  title={Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence},
  author={Kirk J. Brower},
  journal={Current Psychiatry Reports},
  • K. Brower
  • Published 2002
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Current Psychiatry Reports
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are mainly used to treat androgen deficiency syndromes and, more recently, catabolic states such as AIDS-associated wasting. There is no evidence in the reviewed literature that AAS abuse or dependence develops from the therapeutic use of AAS. Conversely, 165 instances of AAS dependence have been reported among weightlifters and bodybuilders who, as part of their weight training regimens, chronically administered supraphysiologic doses, often including… 
Anabolic–androgenic steroid dependence? Insights from animals and humans
  • R. Wood
  • Psychology, Biology
    Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
  • 2008
Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: an emerging disorder.
The accumulating human and animal evidence showing that AAS may cause a distinct dependence syndrome is reviewed, and standard diagnostic criteria for substance dependence must be adapted slightly for cumulatively acting drugs such as AAS.
Treatment of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: Emerging evidence and its implications.
Anabolic Steroid Abuse and Dependence in Clinical Practice
  • K. Brower
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The Physician and sportsmedicine
  • 2009
All physicians who treat nonmedical AAS users will benefit from an understanding of these psychological variables, including the potential for AAS to cause dependence, and guidelines are suggested for assessment and treatment.
Illicit anabolic–androgenic steroid use
Anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism--towards a unified hypothesis of anabolic steroid action.
Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
The level of evidence for treating anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence is currently based on case reports and series as well as expert opinion, and knowledge of the psychiatric, physical, and laboratory findings aids detection.
Multisubstance Use as a Feature of Addiction to Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
Most of the current AAS users who have been admitted to a treatment programme are multiple drug users with polysubstance dependence, and the most common reason given for taking AAS and other hormones was to increase muscle mass and strength, but some participants also used insulin as a means of losing fat.
Reinforcing aspects of androgens
  • R. Wood
  • Biology, Psychology
    Physiology & Behavior
  • 2004
Current Concepts in Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
  • N. Evans
  • Medicine, Biology
    The American journal of sports medicine
  • 2004
Clinical studies have discovered novel therapeutic uses for physiologic doses of AAS, without any significant adverse effects in the short term, and guidelines for the clinical evaluation of Aas users will be presented for sports medicine practitioners.


Abuse liability of testosterone
In conclusion, single doses of testosterone are devoid of the usual pharmacologic effects that are associated with abuse.
Psychiatric and Medical Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use in Women
Dedicated women athletes exhibit not only AAS abuse, but use of many other ergogenic drugs, sometimes associated with significant morbidity, and frequently display several psychiatric syndromes which have not previously been well described.
Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.
Clinicians should be alerted to the possibility of dependence when asked to prescribe anabolic or androgenic steroids and should suspect steroid use among athlete patients who have mood or psychosocial disturbances.
Psychiatric effects and psychoactive substance use in anabolic-androgenic steroid users.
In conclusion, AAS use may lead to psychiatric disorders in certain individuals and concurrent use of psychoactive drugs other than AAS does not appear to be common in intensively training weight lifters and bodybuilders.
Dependence-Producing Potential of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
The study found that 26% of the sample met the DSM III-R criteria for AAS dependence, however, other findings regarding the reasons people use AAS, the mechanism of action of AAS and patterns of cycling the drug, cast doubt on the psychoactive properties and support a “secondary reinforcement” mechanism of dependence.
Psychiatric and medical effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use. A controlled study of 160 athletes.
  • H. Pope, D. Katz
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Archives of general psychiatry
  • 1994
Major mood disturbances associated with anabolic-androgenic steroids may represent an important public health problem for athletes using steroids and sometimes for the victims of their irritability and aggression.
Anabolic-androgenic steroids as a gateway to opioid dependence.
Athletes who abuse anabolic–androgenic steroids may go on to abuse opioid agonist–antagonists such as nalbuphine1–3 or even classic opioids such as heroin, and this phenomenon among patients treated at Sunrise House was studied.
Symptoms and correlates of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.
The data support the notion that AASs are addicting, and suggest that dissatisfaction with body size may lead to dependent patterns of use.
Adolescent use of anabolic-androgenic steroids and relations to self-reports of social, personality and health aspects.
The characteristics of AAS users extend beyond activities such as strength training and multiple drug use to include social, personality and health aspects.