Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence

@article{Brower2002AnabolicSA,
  title={Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence},
  author={Kirk J. Brower},
  journal={Current Psychiatry Reports},
  year={2002},
  volume={4},
  pages={377-387}
}
  • K. Brower
  • Published 2002
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Current Psychiatry Reports
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are mainly used to treat androgen deficiency syndromes and, more recently, catabolic states such as AIDS-associated wasting. There is no evidence in the reviewed literature that AAS abuse or dependence develops from the therapeutic use of AAS. Conversely, 165 instances of AAS dependence have been reported among weightlifters and bodybuilders who, as part of their weight training regimens, chronically administered supraphysiologic doses, often including… 

Anabolic–androgenic steroid dependence? Insights from animals and humans

  • R. Wood
  • Psychology, Biology
    Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
  • 2008

Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: an emerging disorder.

TLDR
The accumulating human and animal evidence showing that AAS may cause a distinct dependence syndrome is reviewed, and standard diagnostic criteria for substance dependence must be adapted slightly for cumulatively acting drugs such as AAS.

Treatment of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: Emerging evidence and its implications.

Anabolic Steroid Abuse and Dependence in Clinical Practice

  • K. Brower
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The Physician and sportsmedicine
  • 2009
TLDR
All physicians who treat nonmedical AAS users will benefit from an understanding of these psychological variables, including the potential for AAS to cause dependence, and guidelines are suggested for assessment and treatment.

Illicit anabolic–androgenic steroid use

Anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism--towards a unified hypothesis of anabolic steroid action.

Adverse health effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

TLDR
The level of evidence for treating anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence is currently based on case reports and series as well as expert opinion, and knowledge of the psychiatric, physical, and laboratory findings aids detection.

Current Concepts in Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

  • N. Evans
  • Medicine, Biology
    The American journal of sports medicine
  • 2004
TLDR
Clinical studies have discovered novel therapeutic uses for physiologic doses of AAS, without any significant adverse effects in the short term, and guidelines for the clinical evaluation of Aas users will be presented for sports medicine practitioners.

Issues for DSM-V: clarifying the diagnostic criteria for anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.

TLDR
The existing DSM criteria for substance dependence could be adapted for diagnosing AAS dependence with only small interpretive changes, and the existing literature and clinical experience with AAS-dependent individuals are suggested to suggest that the existing criteria should be adapted.
...

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TLDR
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TLDR
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