Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence

  title={Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence},
  author={Kirk J. Brower},
  journal={Current Psychiatry Reports},
  • K. Brower
  • Published 2002
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Current Psychiatry Reports
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are mainly used to treat androgen deficiency syndromes and, more recently, catabolic states such as AIDS-associated wasting. There is no evidence in the reviewed literature that AAS abuse or dependence develops from the therapeutic use of AAS. Conversely, 165 instances of AAS dependence have been reported among weightlifters and bodybuilders who, as part of their weight training regimens, chronically administered supraphysiologic doses, often including… 

Anabolic–androgenic steroid dependence? Insights from animals and humans

  • R. Wood
  • Psychology, Biology
    Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
  • 2008

Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: an emerging disorder.

The accumulating human and animal evidence showing that AAS may cause a distinct dependence syndrome is reviewed, and standard diagnostic criteria for substance dependence must be adapted slightly for cumulatively acting drugs such as AAS.

Treatment of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: Emerging evidence and its implications.

Anabolic Steroid Abuse and Dependence in Clinical Practice

  • K. Brower
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The Physician and sportsmedicine
  • 2009
All physicians who treat nonmedical AAS users will benefit from an understanding of these psychological variables, including the potential for AAS to cause dependence, and guidelines are suggested for assessment and treatment.

Illicit anabolic–androgenic steroid use

Anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism--towards a unified hypothesis of anabolic steroid action.

Adverse health effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

The level of evidence for treating anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence is currently based on case reports and series as well as expert opinion, and knowledge of the psychiatric, physical, and laboratory findings aids detection.

Current Concepts in Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

  • N. Evans
  • Medicine, Biology
    The American journal of sports medicine
  • 2004
Clinical studies have discovered novel therapeutic uses for physiologic doses of AAS, without any significant adverse effects in the short term, and guidelines for the clinical evaluation of Aas users will be presented for sports medicine practitioners.

Issues for DSM-V: clarifying the diagnostic criteria for anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.

The existing DSM criteria for substance dependence could be adapted for diagnosing AAS dependence with only small interpretive changes, and the existing literature and clinical experience with AAS-dependent individuals are suggested to suggest that the existing criteria should be adapted.



Abuse liability of testosterone

In conclusion, single doses of testosterone are devoid of the usual pharmacologic effects that are associated with abuse.

Psychiatric and Medical Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use in Women

Dedicated women athletes exhibit not only AAS abuse, but use of many other ergogenic drugs, sometimes associated with significant morbidity, and frequently display several psychiatric syndromes which have not previously been well described.

Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.

Clinicians should be alerted to the possibility of dependence when asked to prescribe anabolic or androgenic steroids and should suspect steroid use among athlete patients who have mood or psychosocial disturbances.

Psychiatric effects and psychoactive substance use in anabolic-androgenic steroid users.

In conclusion, AAS use may lead to psychiatric disorders in certain individuals and concurrent use of psychoactive drugs other than AAS does not appear to be common in intensively training weight lifters and bodybuilders.

Dependence-Producing Potential of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

The study found that 26% of the sample met the DSM III-R criteria for AAS dependence, however, other findings regarding the reasons people use AAS, the mechanism of action of AAS and patterns of cycling the drug, cast doubt on the psychoactive properties and support a “secondary reinforcement” mechanism of dependence.

Adolescent use of anabolic-androgenic steroids and relations to self-reports of social, personality and health aspects.

The characteristics of AAS users extend beyond activities such as strength training and multiple drug use to include social, personality and health aspects.

Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence in a woman.

The first documented case of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) dependence in a female has now been documented, and it is important to advise all patients of the potential for dependence when using anabolic-androgenic steroids.

Weight Training

Weight training and related practices should be considered potential confounding factors in future studies designed to examine the psychological and behavioural effects of AAS.

Risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid use in men.

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Abuse

The estimated percentage of US male high school seniors using anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) declined from 4.7% in 1989 to 4.1% in 1997, and the target is 0.4% for combined male and female adolescent rates.