An upper limit on the stochastic gravitational-wave background of cosmological origin

@article{Abbott2009AnUL,
  title={An upper limit on the stochastic gravitational-wave background of cosmological origin},
  author={B. P. Abbott and Richard J. Abbott and Fausto Acernese and R X Adhikari and Parameswaran Ajith and Bruce Allen and Gabrielle Allen and Mohamed Alshourbagy and Rupal S. Amin and Stuart B. Anderson and Warren G. Anderson and F. Antonucci and S. Aoudia and Muzammil A. Arain and M. C. Araya and Helena Armandula and P. Armor and K. G. Arun and Yoichi Aso and Stuart M. Aston and Pia Astone and Peter Aufmuth and Carsten Aulbert and Stanislav Babak and Paul T. Baker and Giulio Ballardin and Stefan W. Ballmer and C. Barker and Daniel H. N. Barker and Fabrizio Barone and B. W. Barr and Pablo Jos{\'e} Barriga and Lisa Barsotti and Matteo Barsuglia and Mark Andrew Barton and Imre Bartos and Riccardo Bassiri and M. Bastarrika and Th. S. Bauer and Beate Behnke and M. G. Beker and Matthew J. Benacquista and Joe Betzwieser and P. T. Beyersdorf and Stefano Bigotta and I. A. Bilenko and G Billingsley and S. Birindelli and Rahul Biswas and M. A. Bizouard and Eric D. Black and James Kent Blackburn and Lindy Blackburn and David G Blair and B. Bland and Claude A. Boccara and T. P. Bodiya and Lauren Bogue and F. Bondu and L. Bonelli and R. G. Bork and Valerio Boschi and Suvadeep Bose and L. Bosi and Saverio Braccini and C. Bradaschia and Patrick R. Brady and Vladimir B. Braginsky and J. F. J. van den Brand and James E. Brau and Derek O. Bridges and A. Brillet and Martin Brinkmann and V. Brisson and Christian Van den Broeck and A. F. Brooks and D. A. Brown and A. Brummit and G. Brunet and Amber L. Bullington and H. J. Bulten and Alessandra Buonanno and Oliver Burmeister and D. Buskulic and Robert L. Byer and Laura Cadonati and Gianpietro Cagnoli and Enrico Calloni and Jordan B. Camp and E. Campagna and John K. Cannizzo and Kipp C. Cannon and Benjamin Canuel and J. Cao and Franco Carbognani and L. Cardenas and Santiago Caride and Giuseppe Castaldi and Sarah Caudill and Marco Cavagli{\`a} and F. Cavalier and R. Cavalieri and Giancarlo Cella and Carlos Cepeda and Elisa Cesarini and Tara Chalermsongsak and E. Chalkley and Philip R. Charlton and {\'E}ric Chassande-Mottin and Shourov Chatterji and Simon Chelkowski and Y. R. Chen and Nelson Christensen and C. T. Y. Chung and Donald E. Clark and J A Clark and J. H. Clayton and F. Cleva and Eugenio Coccia and Thomas Cokelaer and Carlo Nicola Colacino and Jacques Colas and Alberto Colla and Maria Perla Colombini and Roberto Conte and D. Cook and Thomas R. Corbitt and Christian Corda and Neil J. Cornish and Alessandra Corsi and J.-P. Coulon and D. M. Coward and D. C. Coyne and Jolien D. E. Creighton and Teviet Creighton and Adrian Michael Cruise and R. M. Culter and Andrew Cumming and L. Cunningham and Elena Cuoco and S L Danilishin and Sabrina D’Antonio and Karsten Danzmann and Anna Dari and Vincenzino Dattilo and Britta Daudert and M. Davier and G. S. Cabourn Davies and E. J. Daw and Richard N. Day and Rosario De Rosa and Daniel B. DeBra and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Degallaix and Matteo Del Prete and Vladimir Dergachev and Shantanu Desai and Riccardo DeSalvo and Sanjeev V. Dhurandhar and Luciano Di Fiore and Alberto Di Lieto and M Di Paolo Emilio and Angela D. V. Di Virgilio and M. C. D{\'i}az and Alexander Dietz and Frederick J. Donovan and K L Dooley and E. E. Doomes and M. Drago and Ronald W. P. Drever and J. Dueck and I. Duke and J-C. Dumas and John G. Dwyer and C. Echols and Matthew P. Edgar and Anamaria Effler and Phil Ehrens and Gregory Ely and E. Espinoza and Taylor M. Etzel and Matthew Evans and Timothy Evans and V Fafone and Stephen Fairhurst and Y. Faltas and Y. Fan and Diego Fazi and Henning Fehrmann and I. Ferrante and Francesco Fidecaro and Lee Samuel Finn and Irene Fiori and R. Flaminio and Kurt Flasch and Stephany Foley and C. Forrest and Nickolas V Fotopoulos and J.-D. Fournier and Janyce Franc and Alexander Franzen and Sergio Frasca and F. Frasconi and Maik Frede and Melissa A. Frei and Zsolt Frei and Andreas Freise and Raymond E. Frey and T. T. Fricke and P. Fritschel and Valery Victor Frolov and Matthew Fyffe and Vincenzo Galdi and Luca Gammaitoni and Justin Garofoli and F. Garufi and Emmanuelle G{\'e}nin and A. Gennai and Iraj Gholami and Joseph A. Giaime and Stefanos Giampanis and Krystal Giardina and A. Giazotto and Keisuke Goda and E Goetz and Lisa M. Goggin and Gabriela Gonz{\'a}lez and Mikhail L. Gorodetsky and S Gobler and R. Gouaty and Massimo Granata and Veronica Granata and A. Grant and Slawomir Gras and C. Gray and Malcolm B. Gray and R. Justin S. Greenhalgh and A M Gretarsson and Caroline Greverie and F. Grimaldi and Ryan Grosso and Hartmut Grote and S. Grunewald and Mathias Guenther and G. Guidi and Eric K. Gustafson and Richard Gustafson and Boris Hage and J. M. Hallam and David Hammer and Giles D. Hammond and Chad Hanna and James E. Hanson and Jan Harms and Gregory M. Harry and I. W. Harry and Elizabeth Harstad and K. Haughian and Kazuhiro Hayama and J. W. Heefner and H. Heitmann and P. Hello and Ik Siong Heng and Alastair Heptonstall and Martin Hewitson and Stefan Hild and Eiichi Hirose and David Hoak and Kari Alison Hodge and K. Holt and D. J. Hosken and James Hough and David Hoyland and Dominique Huet and Barbara J. Hughey and S. H. Huttner and D. R. Ingram and Tomoki Isogai and M. Ito and Anton B. Ivanov and Ben Johnson and Warren W. Johnson and D. I. Jones and G. Jones and R. W. L. Jones and L Sancho de la Jordana and Li Ju and Peter Kalmus and Vassiliki Kalogera and Shivaraj Kandhasamy and Jonah B. Kanner and Danuta Kasprzyk and Erotokritos Katsavounidis and Keita Kawabe and Seiji Kawamura and Fumiko Kawazoe and William P. Kells and Drew Garvin Keppel and Alexander Khalaidovski and Farid Ya. Khalili and Rubab Khan and E. A. Khazanov and Peter King and J. S. Kissel and Sergey Klimenko and Keiko Kokeyama and V. T. Kondrashov and Ravi kumar Kopparapu and Scott Koranda and Darby Kozak and Badri Krishnan and R. Kumar and Patrick Kwee and P. La Penna and Ping Koy Lam and Michael Landry and Brian Lantz and M. Laval and Albert Lazzarini and Hansheng Lei and Ming Lei and Nick C. Leindecker and Isabel B. Leonor and Nicolas Leroy and Nicolas Letendre and C. Li and H. L. Lin and P. E. Lindquist and Tyson B. Littenberg and N. A. Lockerbie and Deepali Lodhia and Maurizio Longo and Marco Lorenzini and Vincent Loriette and Marc Lormand and Giovanni Losurdo and P. Lu and M. J. Lubinski and Antonio Lucianetti and Harald L{\"u}ck and Bernd Machenschalk and Myron Macinnis and J.-M. Mackowski and M. Mageswaran and K. Mailand and E. Majorana and Na Man and Ilya Mandel and Vuk Mandic and Maddalena Mantovani and Fabio Marchesoni and F. Marion and Szabolcs M{\'a}rka and Zsuzsanna Marka and Ashot Markosyan and Jared John Markowitz and Edward Maros and J. Marque and F. Martelli and Iain W. Martin and R. M. Martin and J. N. Marx and K. O. Mason and A. Masserot and F. Matichard and Luca Matone and Richard A. Matzner and Nergis Mavalvala and Robert McCarthy and D. E. McClelland and Scott C. McGuire and Martin P. McHugh and G. McIntyre and David McKechan and Kirk Mckenzie and Moritz Mehmet and Andrew Melatos and Adrian C. Melissinos and Greg Mendell and D. F. Men{\'e}ndez and F. Menzinger and R. A. Mercer and Sydney Meshkov and Chris Messenger and Manuel Meyer and Christine Michel and Leopoldo Milano and J. R. Miller and Janaina Minelli and Yury Minenkov and Yasushi Mino and Vp. Mitrofanov and Gena Mitselmakher and Richard K Mittleman and Osamu Miyakawa and Brian Moe and M. Mohan and Soumya D. Mohanty and Satyanarayan Ray Pitambar Mohapatra and J. Moreau and Gerardo Moreno and N. Morgado and A. Morgia and Tomoko Morioka and K. Mors and Simona Mosca and Kasem Mossavi and B. Mours and C Mowlowry and Guido Mueller and Dewan Muhammad and Hermynia zur M{\"u}hlen and Soma Mukherjee and Himan Mukhopadhyay and Adam J Mullavey and Helge M{\"u}ller-Ebhardt and Jesper Munch and P. G. Murray and E. Myers and Joshua Myers and Thomas Nash and Janice Nelson and Igor Neri and G. P. Newton and Atsushi J. Nishizawa and F. Nocera and Kenji Numata and Evan Ochsner and Joseph O'Dell and G. H. Ogin and Brian O'reilly and Richard O’Shaughnessy and David J. Ottaway and R. S. Ottens and Harry Overmier and B. J. Owen and G. Pagliaroli and Cristiano Palomba and Y. B. Pan and Christopher Pankow and Federico Paoletti and Maria Alessandra Papa and V. Parameshwaraiah and Silvio Pardi and A. Pasqualetti and R. Passaquieti and D. Passuello and P. Patel and M. Pedraza and Stephen Penn and Antonio Perreca and Gianluca Persichetti and Mikhael Pichot and Francesco Piergiovanni and Vincenzo Pierro and L. Pinard and Innocenzo M. Pinto and Matthew Pitkin and H. J. Pletsch and Michael V Plissi and R. Poggiani and Fabio Postiglione and M. Principe and Reinhard Prix and Giovanni Andrea Prodi and Leonid Prokhorov and O. Punken and M. Punturo and P. Puppo and S. van. der. Putten and Volker Quetschke and F. J. Raab and Olivier Rabaste and D. S. Rabeling and Hugh Radkins and Peter Raffai and Zolt{\'a}n Raics and N. Rainer and Malik Rakhmanov and P. Rapagnani and V Raymond and Virginia Re and C. M. Reed and T. Reed and Tania Regimbau and Henning Rehbein and Stuart Reid and D. H. Reitze and F. Ricci and R. Riesen and Keith Riles and B. Rivera and P. Roberts and N. A. Robertson and Florent Robinet and C. A. K. Robinson and Emma L. Robinson and Alessandro Rocchi and Shaun Roddy and Lo{\"i}c Rolland and Jameson Graef Rollins},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2009},
  volume={460},
  pages={990-994}
}
A stochastic background of gravitational waves is expected to arise from a superposition of a large number of unresolved gravitational-wave sources of astrophysical and cosmological origin. It should carry unique signatures from the earliest epochs in the evolution of the Universe, inaccessible to standard astrophysical observations. Direct measurements of the amplitude of this background are therefore of fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of the Universe when it was younger… 
Upper Limits on the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from Advanced LIGO's First Observing Run.
TLDR
This work performs a search for the isotropic stochastic gravitational-wave background using data from Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory's (aLIGO) first observing run, and constrain the dimensionless energy density of gravitational waves to be Ω_{0}<1.7×10^{-7} with 95% confidence.
Stochastic gravitational wave backgrounds.
  • N. Christensen
  • Physics
    Reports on progress in physics. Physical Society
  • 2019
TLDR
This review will summarize the current state of research of the stochastic background, from the sources of these gravitational waves to the current methods used to observe them.
Improved upper limits on the stochastic gravitational-wave background from 2009-2010 LIGO and Virgo data.
TLDR
A search for the stochastic background with the latest data from the LIGO and Virgo detectors shows no evidence of a stochastically gravitational-wave signal, and the limits in these four bands are the lowest direct measurements to date on the stoChastic background.
Gravitational-wave cosmology across 29 decades in frequency
Quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field in the early Universe, amplified by inflation, produce a primordial gravitational-wave background across a broad frequency band. We derive constraints
Anisotropy of the astrophysical gravitational wave background: Analytic expression of the angular power spectrum and correlation with cosmological observations
Unresolved and resolved sources of gravitational waves are at the origin of a stochastic gravitational wave background. While the computation of its mean density as a function of frequency in a
STOCHASTIC GRAVITATIONAL WAVE BACKGROUND FROM NEUTRON STAR r-MODE INSTABILITY REVISITED
We revisit the possibility and detectability of a stochastic gravitational wave (GW) background produced by a cosmological population of newborn neutron stars (NSs) with r-mode instabilities. The NS
Astrometric effects of a stochastic gravitational wave background
A stochastic gravitational wave background causes the apparent positions of distant sources to fluctuate, with angular deflections of order the characteristic strain amplitude of the gravitational
Component Separation of a Isotropic Gravitational Wave Background
A Gravitational Wave Background (GWB) is expected in the universe from the superposition of a large number of unresolved astrophysical sources and phenomena in the early universe. Each component of
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