An update on anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis for neurologists and psychiatrists: mechanisms and models

  title={An update on anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis for neurologists and psychiatrists: mechanisms and models},
  author={Josep Dalmau and Tha{\'i}s Armangu{\'e} and Jes{\'u}s Planagum{\`a} and Marija Radosevic and Francesco Mannara and Frank Leypoldt and Christian Geis and Eric Lancaster and Maarten J. Titulaer and Myrna R. Rosenfeld and Francesc Graus},
  journal={The Lancet Neurology},

A Case of Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis with Normal Findings on Initial Diagnostic Tests

A patient who presented with acute onset of psychosis with normal EEG, and normal brain MRI, and non-inflammatory CSF initially is reported, using diagnostic tests such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, electroencephalogram (EEG), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as integral supportive findings.

Anti-NMDAR encephalitis for psychiatrists: the essentials

‘Red flags’ for autoimmune encephalitis and ‘diagnostic clues’ act as helpful aide memoires for this uncommon condition and earlier diagnosis and immunotherapy improves long-term outcomes.

Psychiatric management of anti-NMDAR encephalitis: a cohort analysis

Although there was an 88% reduction in cases with aggression, there was little improvement in psychosis, affective symptoms or catatonia with antipsychotics alone, and psychiatric input is imperative for both acute and longer-term management of anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

Case Report: Severe Adolescent Major Depressive Syndrome Turns Out to Be an Unusual Case of Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

Surprisingly, pleocytosis and anti-NMDAR autoantibodies are found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of an 18-year-old female high school student with a rapid onset severe depressive syndrome, despite an otherwise unremarkable diagnostic workup.

Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and overlapping demyelinating disorder in a 20-year old female with borderline personality disorder: proposal of a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for autoimmune encephalitis in psychiatric patients “case report”

Continuous awareness for neuropsychiatric clinical warning signs in patients with a pre-diagnosed psychiatric disorder is important for a timely diagnosis, and the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm provided here, for the first time, can be a useful tool.

Current Progress on Assessing the Prognosis for Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) Encephalitis

Current advances of prognosis-related research from the clinical manifestations of the disease and auxiliary examinations such as EEG, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 18F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and antibody measurement are reviewed.

Immunopsychiatry: an update on autoimmune encephalitis for neuropsychiatrists

This text will review the main aspects of AIE to psychiatrists and/or neuropsychiatrists and the use of diagnostic criteria for possible AIE allows early diagnosis and prompt treatment which are associated with better clinical outcomes.

Autoimmune anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor encephalitis as a rare cause of complex psychiatric and neurologic manifestations. Case report and literature review

A case of a 20-year-old female transferred to an intensive care unit from the Department of Psychiatry, due to a worsening state of consciousness with symptoms of respiratory failure and hemodynamic instability, and the diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis is presented.

Longitudinal analysis of regional brain changes in anti-NMDAR encephalitis: a case report

The results suggest that reversible cortical volume loss in anti-NMDA encephalitis has a regional specificity that mirrors many of the clinical symptoms associated with the disorder and tracks the dynamics of disease severity over time.

Clinical Characteristics of Anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis Overlapping with Demyelinating Diseases: A Review

Compared with classical NMDare, overlapping syndromes showed atypical symptoms, such as limb weakness, sensory disturbance, and visual impairments in addition to the main symptoms of NMDARe and a lower ratio of ovarian teratoma, and a favorable outcome was observed in patients overlapping with MOGAD.



Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis in Psychiatry.

Up to date review of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is provided and the role of psychiatry is highlighted in diagnosis, symptomatology, and treatment.

The Psychiatric Phenotype of Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis.

Patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis present with a somewhat distinct cluster of psychiatric symptoms not commonly seen in functional psychoses, and the more prominent psychotic features in younger adults may reflect greater susceptibility of the young brain to exogenous psychosis.

Neuroleptic intolerance in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis

Several psychiatric presentations were observed in patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, although none was specific; however, patients, mostly women, also had discreet neurologic signs that should be carefully assessed as well as signs of antipsychotic intolerance that should raise suspicion for anti- NMDAREncephalitis.

Neuropsychological And Psychopathological Profile Of Anti-Nmdar Encephalitis: A Possible Pathophysiological Model For Pediatric Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

Children diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis were found to have behavioral and psychological deficits pointing to a more comprehensive framework of frontal-subcortical dysfunction, in which the NMDA mediated transmission appear to have a role, as suggested by neurobiological, pharmacological, and neuroimaging studies.

The Movement disorder associated with NMDAR antibody-encephalitis is complex and characteristic: an expert video-rating study

Ratings from seven experts across 76 videos were used to better define the MD in NMDAR-AbE, and a clearer description will facilitate confident recognition and enable earlier immunotherapy administration in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody-mediated encephalitis.

Frequency and characteristics of isolated psychiatric episodes in anti–N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

In patients with new-onset psychosis, having a history of encephalitis, subtle neurological symptoms, and/or abnormal results on ancillary tests should prompt screening for NMDAR antibodies.

Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Review of Psychiatric Phenotypes and Management Considerations: A Report of the American Neuropsychiatric Association Committee on Research.

It is important to consider anti-NMDAR encephalitis in the differential diagnosis of patients with an acute onset psychosis, especially in association with agitation, catatonia, or adverse response to antipsychotics.