An unwinding activity that covalently modifies its double-stranded RNA substrate

@article{Bass1988AnUA,
  title={An unwinding activity that covalently modifies its double-stranded RNA substrate},
  author={Brenda L. Bass and Harold Weintraub},
  journal={Cell},
  year={1988},
  volume={55},
  pages={1089-1098}
}
An activity that unwinds double-stranded RNA has been reported to exist in several organisms. We have analyzed the RNA intermediates and final products of the unwinding reaction. Although the RNA becomes sensitive to single strand-specific ribonucleases during the reaction, the duplex is never completely unwound. Furthermore, the base pairing properties of the RNA are permanently altered; the reacted RNA cannot rehybridize to form the original duplex. We demonstrate that during the reaction… 
Modulation of Double‐Stranded RNAs in Vivo by RNA Duplex Unwindase a
  • K. Nishikura
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1992
TLDR
It now appears more likely that the double-stranded RNA unwinding/modifying activity may participate in antisense RNA suppression of target genes, either by altering the coding capacity of the sense mRNAs or by accelerating the degradation of duplex RNAs.
RNA unwinding activity of SV40 large T antigen
TLDR
Large T antigen, the regulatory protein encoded by simian virus 40, has DNA helicase activity and unwinds double-stranded DNA at the expense of ATP, and it appears that the bound nucleotide determines whether T antigen acts as an RNA helicase or as aDNA helicase.
Structure and specific RNA binding of ADAR2 double-stranded RNA binding motifs.
TLDR
NMR structures of the two double-stranded RNA binding motifs of rat ADAR2 and an NMR chemical shift perturbation study of the interaction of theTwo dsRBMs with a 71 nucleotide RNA encoding the R/G site of the GluR-B are reported.
ADAR proteins: double-stranded RNA and Z-DNA binding domains.
TLDR
The current structural and molecular knowledge on RNA editing by the ADAR family of protein is reviewed, especially on two types of nucleic acid binding domains present in ADARs, namely the dsRNA and Z-DNA binding domains.
Double-stranded RNA unwinding and modifying activity is detected ubiquitously in primary tissues and cell lines.
TLDR
The unwinding and modifying activity, localized in the nucleus in somatic cells and capable of converting many adenosine residues to inosine, appears to be one of the housekeeping genes.
Double-stranded RNA unwinding and modifying activity is detected ubiquitously in primary tissues and cell lines
A double-stranded RNA unwinding and modifying activity was found to be present in a wide range of tissues and cell types. The level of activity did not vary significantly with respect to the state of
Exonucleolytic degradation of double-stranded RNA by an activity in Xenopus laevis germinal vesicles
TLDR
The exonuclease Chipper is named, which could cooperate or compete with Dicer (an endonucleasing that produces molecules with a 5′-phosphate) in the processing of dsRNAs, which can processively digest dsRNA to mononucleotides.
Probing adenosine-to-inosine editing reactions using RNA-containing nucleoside analogs.
TLDR
This work describes the synthesis of select nucleoside analog phosphoramidites and their incorporation into RNAs that mimic known editing sites by solid phase synthesis, and analyzes the interaction of these synthetic RNAs with ADARs using deamination kinetics and quantitative gel mobility shift assays.
Editing Reactions from the Perspective of RNA Structure
TLDR
The focus of this review is to highlight the contribu- tions of RNA structure to the specificity and efficiency of RNA editing.
RNA Editing by Adenosine Deaminases that Act on RNA (ADARs)
TLDR
An overview on ADAR enzymes, their molecular architecture, occurrence, and substrate specificity is given, and consequences of editing, studies in model organisms, and implications for other double-stranded RNA-dependent processes are discussed.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 22 REFERENCES
A developmentally regulated activity that unwinds RNA duplexes
TLDR
The studies indicate that this is due to the presence of an activity that unwinds RNA:RNA hybrids, which is present at low, but detectable, levels in Xenopus oocytes, increases during oocyte maturation, and exists at high levels throughout early embryogenesis.
Cell cycle expression of RNA duplex unwindase activity in mammalian cells.
An RNA duplex unwindase activity has been found by using an in vitro assay with various types of mammalian, somatic cells, including HeLa, mouse plasmacytoma, and Burkitt lymphoma. The unwindase
Antisense RNA injections in fertilized frog eggs reveal an RNA duplex unwinding activity
TLDR
Results suggest that antisense RNAs may be of limited use in studying the functions of maternal RNAs in Xenopus, and a novel activity that unwinds RNA:RNA duplexes was found.
The role of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles in pre-mRNA splicing
TLDR
A small set of distinctive short RNA molecules are found in the nuclei of all higher eukaryotic cells and yeast, in protein complexes known as 'small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles', or snRNPs, which have been shown to be an integral part of the ' spliceosome'.
The oriC unwinding by dam methylation in Escherichia coli.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the thermal melting temperature of the oriC region is lowered by adenine methylation at GATC sites, indicating the regulation of initiation of DNA replication by dam methylation may be attributed to the ease of unwinding at G ATC sites in oriC.
Inosine biosynthesis in transfer RNA by an enzymatic insertion of hypoxanthine.
TLDR
It is proposed that the enzyme, a tRNA-hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase, is responsible for the biosynthesis of inosine in the anticodon wobble position of specific t RNAs, resulting in greatly expanded codon recognition by these tRNAs.
Base pairing involving deoxyinosine: implications for probe design.
The thermal stability of oligodeoxyribonucleotide duplexes containing deoxyinosine (I) residues matched with each of the four normal DNA bases were determined by optical melting techniques. The
Kinetics of the helix‐coil transition in DNA
TLDR
The kinetics of the helix‐coil transition have been investigated for T2 and T7 phage DNA in a formamide‐water‐salt mixed solvent using a slow temperature perturbation technique, indicating that the mechanism of rewinding differs, in most cases, from that of unwinding.
An improved method for the separation and quantitation of the modified nucleosides of transfer RNA
TLDR
Based on the analysis of two mammalian tRNAs it is shown that the technique is suitable for the determination of chemically unstable nucleosides as well as the ribose-methylated compounds.
A novel form of tissue-specific RNA processing produces apolipoprotein-B48 in intestine
TLDR
It is suggested that a co- or posttranscriptional C----U change may result in the production of apo-B48, which represents the amino-terminal 2152 amino acids of api-B100, which is the first example of tissue-specific modification of a single mRNA nucleotide resulting in two different proteins from the same primary transcript.
...
1
2
3
...