An ultra-brief screening scale for anxiety and depression: the PHQ-4.

  title={An ultra-brief screening scale for anxiety and depression: the PHQ-4.},
  author={Kurt Kroenke and Robert L. Spitzer and Janet B W Williams and Bernd L{\"o}we},
  volume={50 6},
BACKGROUND The most common mental disorders in both outpatient settings and the general population are depression and anxiety, which frequently coexist. Both of these disorders are associated with considerable disability. OBJECTIVE When the disorders co-occur, the disability is even greater. Authors sought to test an ultra-brief screening tool for both. METHOD Validated two-item ultra-brief screeners for depression and anxiety were combined to constitute the Patient Health Questionnaire for… 

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