An overview of the upper esophageal sphincter.

  title={An overview of the upper esophageal sphincter.},
  author={Ivan M. Lang and Reza Shaker},
  journal={Current gastroenterology reports},
  volume={2 3},
The anatomy and physiology of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) are complex. Much progress has been made over the past few years in our understanding this important sphincter. The closing muscles of the UES include the inferior pharyngeal sphincter, the cricopharyngeus (CP), and the cervical esophagus. The CP is composed of two parts, which may have different functions. The CP is innervated by the pharyngeal plexus and the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Tone of the UES is probably generated by… CONTINUE READING


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