An overview of the state of the art of noninvasive FES for independent ambulation by thoracic level paraplegics.

Abstract

This paper is an overview of the status of transcutaneous noninvasive (unbraced) functional electrical stimulation (FES) for independent standing and for independent ambulation by traumatic spinal-cord injured (SCI) paraplegics with complete spinal cord lesions at the thoracic level. The paper discusses aspects of patient selection, patient training, system performance, ambulation range, medical benefits and psychological benefits. It also considers problems relating to system adoption and long term system use. Furthermore, the paper discusses the various aspects of transcutaneous noninvasive FES as compared with implanted FES systems for ambulation by thoracic level SCI patients.

Cite this paper

@article{Graupe2002AnOO, title={An overview of the state of the art of noninvasive FES for independent ambulation by thoracic level paraplegics.}, author={Daniel Graupe}, journal={Neurological research}, year={2002}, volume={24 5}, pages={431-42} }