An outbreak of bovine meningoencephalomyelitis with identification of Halicephalobus gingivalis.

@article{Enemark2016AnOO,
  title={An outbreak of bovine meningoencephalomyelitis with identification of Halicephalobus gingivalis.},
  author={Heidi Larsen Enemark and Mette Sif Hansen and Tim K{\aa}re Jensen and Gitte Larsen and Mohammad Nafi Solaiman Al-Sabi},
  journal={Veterinary parasitology},
  year={2016},
  volume={218},
  pages={
          82-6
        }
}
Fatal Halicephalobus gingivalis infection in horses from Central America.
First description of a fatal equine infection with Halicephalobus gingivalis in Portugal. Relevance for public health
TLDR
The clinical history, necropsy and histological findings presented constitute a typical case of H. gingivalis infection in a horse, never previously described in Portugal to the authors’ best knowledge.
Granulomatous lesions in multiple organs in a horse caused by Halicephalobus gingivalis
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Clinical, macroscopic and histologic findings associated with Halicephalobus gingivalis infection in a male Arab horse, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, reveal granulomatous encephalitis, nephritis, lymphadenitis and focal granulOMatous pneumonia associated with marked and chronic infection caused by H. gingivals.
Pathologic features and molecular identification of parelaphostrongylosis in a sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii)
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This is the first report of cerebral nematodiasis by Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in a sitatunga, a bovid species introduced into the USA, and the first characterization of the local inflammatory response immunophenotype in this condition.
Miocardite granulomatosa em cavalo por Halicephalobus gingivalis (H. deletrix)
TLDR
Acredita-se that o nematodeo penetre por via oral, nasal ou por feridas cutâneas com subsequente reproducao nos tecidos do hospedeiro nao sao bem conhecidas.

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Fatal equine meningoencephalitis in the United Kingdom caused by the panagrolaimid nematode Halicephalobus gingivalis: case report and review of the literature.
TLDR
The taxonomy of H. gingivalis has changed and some recent reports in the literature still refer to this species as Micronema deletrix or Halicephalobus deletrix, a short update of the species and some insights on the order Tylenchida, which contains free-living nematodes with parasitic tendencies are provided.
Fatal parasitic meningoencephalomyelitis caused by Halicephalobus deletrix : a case report and review of the literature.
TLDR
Although extremely rare, the Halicephalobus deletrix organism needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of human helminthic infection of the central nervous system.
The distribution pattern of Halicephalobus gingivalis in a horse is suggestive of a haematogenous spread of the nematode
TLDR
Post mortem findings, the distribution pattern of H. gingivalis nematodes in the brain, a high prevalence of inflammation in close relation to blood vessels, and the presence of the nematode in multiple organs with a disseminated pattern of distribution strongly suggested a haematogenous spread of the Nemesis in the horse.
Treatment of a granuloma caused by Halicephalobus gingivalis in a horse.
TLDR
A 12-year-old Arabian gelding with a granuloma caused by the nematode Halicephalobus gingivalis caudal and dorsal to the left orbit was examined and resolved with no evidence of nematodes infection after 18 months.
HALICEPHALOBUS GINGIVALIS (NEMATODA) INFECTION IN A GREVY'S ZEBRA (EQUUS GREVYI)
TLDR
Histologic examination of the kidneys, heart, eyes, uterus, and lymph nodes revealed granulomas containing multiple sections of rhabditiform nematodes, indicating that this parasitic granulomatous disease should be considered in zebras with neurologic disease.
First Human Case of Fatal Halicephalobus gingivalis Meningoencephalitis in Australia
TLDR
The first case of H. gingivalis infection in an Australian human patient is reported, confirmed by nematode morphology and sequencing of ribosomal DNA and the need to evaluate real-time PCR as a diagnostic tool is discussed.
A nodular granulomatous posthitis caused by Halicephalobus sp. in a horse.
TLDR
This case of nodular posthitis caused by Halicephalobus gingivalis in a 24-year-old warmblood horse is unusual in that the lesions were locally very extensive but they remained confined to the preputium and the nematodes did not spread haematogenously to other internal organs.
Ocular Halicephalobus (syn. Micronema) deletrix in a Horse
TLDR
Ocular contents from a horse with a 4-week history of severe unilateral uveitis were submitted for histopathologic examination and suggested possible systemic dissemination from a primary site in the eye.
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