Mesoporous magnetic supraparticles (meso-MSPs) as multifunctional targeted drug carriers have attracted much attention, because of their easy magnetic-field manipulation and in situ sensing functionality. In this paper, a Fe(3+)-selective chemodosimeter fluorescent probe (FP-1) was synthesized and loaded inside of the meso-MSPs (meso-MSPs/probe); the meso-MSPs/probe nanocomposites were then used to monitor the degradation of meso-MSPs in cells. In our experiments, strong fluorescence intensity was observed in HeLa cells, because of their acidic intracellular environment, which can quickly degrade the meso-MSPs and then release Fe(3+) ions in cells that, in turn, activate the fluorescence of FP-1. Meanwhile, a very weak fluorescence signal was detected in HEK 293T cells due to the relative neutral intracellular environment of HEK 293T cells, which prevented the Fe(3+) ion from leaching out of meso-MSPs. Moreover, this degradation-luminescence relationship of the meso-MSPs/probe nanocomposites not only assisted us to understand the degradation status of meso-MSPs in cells, but also allowed us to recognize the peculiarity of different cells with various intracellular environments.