An operative case of bilateral peripheral pulmonary arterial aneurysms is described. Nine cases of bilateral peripheral pulmonary arterial aneurysms reported in Japan are reviewed. The patient was a 26-year-old woman complaining of massive hemoptysis. Her chest X-ray showed coin lesions in the bilateral hilus region. After admission, body CT and pulmonary arteriography revealed saccular dilatation of the bilateral peripheral pulmonary artery. We diagnosed as bilateral peripheral pulmonary arterial aneurysms. Bronchoscopic examination revealed bleeding from the left lower lobe bronchus. She underwent left lower lobectomy. Histological examination of the resected specimen demonstrated a marked destruction of the wall of the aneurysm. This patient died of recurrence of hemoptysis from bilateral lung on the 42nd postoperative day.