An observed correlation between plume activity and tidal stresses on Enceladus

@article{Hedman2013AnOC,
  title={An observed correlation between plume activity and tidal stresses on Enceladus},
  author={Matthew M. Hedman and Catherine Gosmeyer and Philip D. Nicholson and Christophe Sotin and Robert H. Brown and Roger N. Clark and Kevin H. Baines and Bonnie J. Buratti and Mark R. Showalter},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2013},
  volume={500},
  pages={182-184}
}
Saturn’s moon Enceladus emits a plume of water vapour and micrometre-sized ice particles from a series of warm fissures located near its south pole. This geological activity could be powered or controlled by variations in the tidal stresses experienced by Enceladus as it moves around its slightly eccentric orbit. The specific mechanisms by which these varying stresses are converted into heat, however, are still being debated. Furthermore, it has proved difficult to find a clear correlation… 
Timing of water plume eruptions on Enceladus explained by interior viscosity structure
Water plume eruptions on Saturn’s icy moon Enceladus are delayed relative to the peak tidal stresses. Simulations suggest the delay can be explained by the moon’s interior structure and the presence
Solar system: Saturn's tides control Enceladus' plume
Data obtained by the Cassini spacecraft show that the plume of ice particles at the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus is four times brighter when the moon is farthest away from the planet than
HOW THE GEYSERS, TIDAL STRESSES, AND THERMAL EMISSION ACROSS THE SOUTH POLAR TERRAIN OF ENCELADUS ARE RELATED
We present the first comprehensive examination of the geysering, tidal stresses, and anomalous thermal emission across the south pole of Enceladus and discuss the implications for the moon's thermal
Powering prolonged hydrothermal activity inside Enceladus
Geophysical data from the Cassini spacecraft imply the presence of a global ocean underneath the ice shell of Enceladus1, only a few kilometres below the surface in the South Polar Terrain2–4.
Sustained eruptions on Enceladus explained by turbulent dissipation in tiger stripes
  • E. Kite, A. Rubin
  • Geology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2016
TLDR
A model of the tiger stripes as tidally flexed slots that puncture the ice shell can simultaneously explain the persistence of the eruptions through the tidal cycle, the phase lag, and the total power output, while suggesting that eruptions are maintained over geological timescales.
The thermal and orbital evolution of Enceladus : observational constraints and models
Enceladus possesses a global subsurface ocean beneath an ice shell a few tens of km thick, and is observed to be losing heat at a rate of ∼10 GW from its south polar region. Two major puzzles are the
Could It Be Snowing Microbes on Enceladus? Assessing Conditions in Its Plume and Implications for Future Missions
TLDR
It is suggested the well-known process of bubble scrubbing as a means by which oceanic organic matter and microbes may be found in the plume in significantly enhanced concentrations: for the latter, as high as 107’cells/mL, yielding as many as 103 cells on a 0.04 m2 collector in a single 50 km altitude transect of the plumes.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 30 REFERENCES
Enceladus: An Active Cryovolcanic Satellite
Enceladus is one of the most remarkable satellites in the solar system, as revealed by Cassini's detection of active plumes erupting from warm fractures near its south pole. This discovery makes
Shear heating as the origin of the plumes and heat flux on Enceladus
TLDR
It is shown that the most likely explanation for the heat and vapour production is shear heating by tidally driven lateral (strike-slip) fault motion with displacement of ∼0.5 m over a tidal period, suggesting that the ice shell is decoupled from the silicate interior by a subsurface ocean.
Jetting Activity and Thermal Emission across the South Polar Terrain of Enceladus: Observations and Comparisons with Shear-Heating Models
Introduction: Cassini ISS Enceladus images reveal a forest of jets of fine icy particles erupting from the moon?s south polar terrain (SPT) and feeding a giant plume that extends thousands of
Eruptions arising from tidally controlled periodic openings of rifts on Enceladus
TLDR
A mechanism in which temporal variations in tidal stress open and close the tiger-stripe rifts, governing the timing of eruptions is reported, implying that Enceladus’ icy shell behaves as a thin elastic layer, perhaps only a few tens of kilometres thick.
A salt-water reservoir as the source of a compositionally stratified plume on Enceladus
TLDR
Whereas previous Cassini observations were compatible with a variety of plume formation mechanisms, these data eliminate or severely constrain non-liquid models and strongly imply that a salt-water reservoir with a large evaporating surface provides nearly all of the matter in the plume.
Slow dust in Enceladus' plume from condensation and wall collisions in tiger stripe fractures
TLDR
It is shown that repeated wall collisions of grains, with re-acceleration by the gas, induce an effective friction, offering a natural explanation for the reduced grain velocity, and suggests liquid water below Enceladus’ south pole.
Cassini Encounters Enceladus: Background and the Discovery of a South Polar Hot Spot
TLDR
Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) detected 3 to 7 gigawatts of thermal emission from the south polar troughs at temperatures up to 145 kelvin or higher, making Enceladus only the third known solid planetary body—after Earth and Io—that is sufficiently geologically active for its internal heat to be detected by remote sensing.
The composition and structure of the Enceladus plume
The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed an occultation of the Sun by the water vapor plume at the south polar region of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV)
...
...