An observational electro-clinical study of status epilepticus: From management to outcome

Abstract

Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency associated with a high morbidity and mortality. A prospective 3-year study was conducted in our hospital on 56 consecutive inpatients with SE. Demographic and clinical data were collected. EEG and clinical SE features were considered for the SE classification, both separately and together. The etiology of SE was determined. Patients were treated according to international standardized protocols of guidelines for the management of epilepsy. Response to treatment was evaluated clinically and electrophysiologically. Outcome at 30 days was considered as good, poor or death. Convulsive SE (CSE) was observed in 35 patients and non-convulsive SE (NCSE) in 21. Patients with CSE, in particular focal-CSE, were older than those with NCSE. As regards etiology, patients with SE secondary to cerebral lesions were the oldest, followed by patients with anoxic SE and those with toxic dysmetabolic SE. A first-line treatment was usually sufficient to control seizure activity in lesional and epileptic SE, while more aggressive treatment was necessary in all anoxic SE patients. Outcome was good in 35 patients, poor in 12, while 9 died. A prompt neurophysiological EEG evaluation, combined with the clinical evaluation, helps to make a rapid prognosis and take therapeutic management decisions. First-line treatments may be sufficient to control electro-clinical status in lesional and epileptic SE, while intensive care unit management, a more aggressive therapeutic approach and continuous EEG monitoring are recommended for refractory SE.

DOI: 10.1016/j.seizure.2011.09.010

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@article{Pro2012AnOE, title={An observational electro-clinical study of status epilepticus: From management to outcome}, author={S. Pro and Edoardo Vicenzini and M. T. La Rocco and Gustavo Spadetta and Franco Randi and Patrizia Pulitano and Oriano Mecarelli}, journal={Seizure}, year={2012}, volume={21}, pages={98-103} }