An objective definition of shoulder dystocia: prolonged head-to-body delivery intervals and/or the use of ancillary obstetric maneuvers.

@article{Spong1995AnOD,
  title={An objective definition of shoulder dystocia: prolonged head-to-body delivery intervals and/or the use of ancillary obstetric maneuvers.},
  author={Catherine Y. Spong and Thomas M. Beall and D{\'i}rcea Rodrigues and Michael G. Ross},
  journal={Obstetrics and gynecology},
  year={1995},
  volume={86 3},
  pages={
          433-6
        }
}
OBJECTIVE To generate an objective definition of shoulder dystocia by timing the events of the second and third stages of labor, and to define the true incidence of shoulder dystocia. METHODS In 34 arbitrarily selected 24-hour time periods, a nonparticipating observer prospectively timed intervals of the second stage of labor in all vaginal deliveries and recorded the use of obstetric maneuvers (McRoberts, episiotomy after delivery of the fetal head, intentional extension of initial… CONTINUE READING
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