An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications.

  title={An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications.},
  author={Rod McCrae and Oliver P. John},
  journal={Journal of personality},
  volume={60 2},
The five-factor model of personality is a hierarchical organization of personality traits in terms of five basic dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience. Research using both natural language adjectives and theoretically based personality questionnaires supports the comprehensiveness of the model and its applicability across observers and cultures. This article summarizes the history of the model and its supporting evidence; discusses… 

Relating the Five-Factor Model of Personality to a Circumplex Model of Affect

This chapter examines the relation between the Five-Factor Model of personality and momentary affect in five languages, based on a pooled sample of 2070 (Ns = 535 for English, 233 for Spanish, 487

The Sixteen-Factor Model of Personality

The sixteen-factor model of personality represents a unique and momentous chapter in the history of personality research. Emerging out of the lexical tradition and factor analytic studies, the

Solid ground in the wetlands of personality: a reply to Block.

Evidence shows strong support for the five-factor model of personality beyond the lexical and questionnaire traditions he reviews, which is likely to be more fruitful when used in conjunction with established knowledge about the structure of personality traits: the FFM.

Empirical, Theoretical, and Practical Advantages of the HEXACO Model of Personality Structure

  • M. AshtonKibeom Lee
  • Psychology
    Personality and social psychology review : an official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc
  • 2007
The HEXACO model accommodates several personality variables that are poorly assimilated within the B5/FFM, including the relations of personality factors with theoretical biologists' constructs of reciprocal and kin altruism and the patterns of sex differences in personality traits.

Relating the Tellegen and five-factor models of personality structure.

  • A. T. Church
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1994
With 575 college students, the relationship between A. Tellegen's (1985) personality model, assessed with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), and the Big Five model, operationalized

Cross-Cultural Research on the Five-Factor Model of Personality

The Five-Factor Model (FFM) is a comprehensive taxonomy of personality traits, which are tendencies to show consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions. Although it was originally

Openness to Experience as a Basic Dimension of Personality

In this article I trace some of the historic roots of the concept of Openness to Experience and provide data on the convergent and discriminant validity of measures of Openness in the Revised NEO

The Five-Factor Framing of Personality and Beyond: Some Ruminations

The five-factor conceptualization of personality has been presented as all-embracing in understanding personality and has even received authoritative recommendation for understanding early



Why I Advocate the Five-Factor Model: Joint Factor Analyses of the NEO-PI with Other Instruments

Although the five-factor model of personality originated in studies of natural language, recent research suggests that it can encompass dimensions of individual differences derived from many of the

Extension of the Interpersonal Adjective Scales to include the Big Five dimensions of personality.

Recent recognition that the dominance and nurturance dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex correspond closely to the surgency/extraversion and agreeableness dimensions of the five-factor model

Evaluating comprehensiveness in personality systems: The California Q‐Set and the five‐factor model

The analysis of natural language trait names and questionnaire scales has suggested that the five factors of Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeable-ness, and Conscientiousness constitute an

The five-factor model and its assessment in clinical settings.

  • R. McCrae
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality assessment
  • 1991
The factors and the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), a questionnaire designed to measure the factors and some of the traits that define them, are introduced and issues regarding the clinical use of the five-factor model are discussed.

An alternative "description of personality": the big-five factor structure.

  • L. R. Goldberg
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1990
The generality of this 5-factor model is here demonstrated across unusually comprehensive sets of trait terms, which suggest their potential utility as Big-Five markers in future studies.

The NEO Personality Inventory: Using the Five‐Factor ModeI in Counseling

Personality psychologists have recently concluded that five major dimensions account for most individual differences in personality traits. The NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) is a concise measure

Updating Norman's "Adequate Taxonomy": intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and in questionnaires.

The relations among culture, conscientiousness, openness, and intelligence are discussed, and it is concluded that mental ability is a separate factor, though related to openness to experience.

Clinical use of the five-factor model: an introduction.

  • P. Costa
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality assessment
  • 1991
Questions are raised about the use of personality profiles in psychodiagnosis, the range of applicability of the five-factor model, the utility of personality feedback in psychotherapy, the stability of personality scores among psychotherapy patients, and the feasibility of using personality scores to select optimal forms of treatment.

Personality in adulthood

Now in a revised and expanded second edition, this influential work argues for the enduring stability of personality across adult development. It also offers a highly accessible introduction to the