An international perspective on Tourette syndrome: selected findings from 3500 individuals in 22 countries

@article{Freeman2000AnIP,
  title={An international perspective on Tourette syndrome: selected findings from 3500 individuals in 22 countries},
  author={Roger Dee Freeman and Diane K. Fast and Larry J Burd and Jacob Kerbeshian and Mary May Robertson and Paul Sandor},
  journal={Developmental Medicine \& Child Neurology},
  year={2000},
  volume={42}
}
We have established a multisite, international database of 3500 individuals diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (TS). The male:female ratio is 4.3:1 for the total sample, with wide variation among sites; the male excess occurs at every site. Anger control problems, sleep difficulties, coprolalia, and self‐injurious behavior only reach impressive levels in individuals with comorbidity. Anger control problems are strongly correlated with comorbidity, regardless of site, region, or whether assessed… 
‘An international perspective on Tourette syndrome’
  • H. Rickards
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Developmental medicine and child neurology
  • 2001
TLDR
This is a population with a large proportion of people who have learning difficulties, a high proportion with ADHD, and a relatively low level of symptoms which have stronger phenomenological links with TS (coprolalia and OCB/OCD).
Tourette syndrome: review of literature
TLDR
The TS causes many damages as psychosocial and educational for the individual and the family, however, the diagnosis and the early treatment are able to minimize or cancel this damages.
Influence of Gender on Tourette Syndrome Beyond Adolescence
Sources of Disability in Tourette Syndrome: Children vs. Adults
  • K. Kompoliti
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Tremor and other hyperkinetic movements
  • 2015
TLDR
This manuscript reviews the disease-specific Quality of Life (QOL) instruments used to measure disability in TS and the existing literature on sources of functional impairment in children and adults with TS and examines the differential impact of tics vs. the psychiatric co-morbidities.
An introduction to the clinical phenomenology of Tourette syndrome.
The Prevalence of Tourette Syndrome and Other Tic Disorders in Saudi Arabia
TLDR
Prevalence of Tourette syndrome among adults and children is higher than reported in previous figures and should no longer be considered merely a motor disorder and, most importantly, that TS is no longer a unitary condition, as it was previously thought.
The Gilles De La Tourette syndrome: the current status
  • M. Robertson
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Archives of Disease in Childhood: Education & Practice Edition
  • 2012
TLDR
Intriguing neuroanatomical and brain circuitry abnormalities have now been suggested in GTS; the most evidence is for cortical thinning and a reduction in the size of the caudate nucleus.
Prevalence of Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tics in the Population-Based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort
A Controlled Study of Psychopathology and Asssociated Symptoms in Tourette Syndrome
  • H. Rickards, M. Robertson
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The world journal of biological psychiatry : the official journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry
  • 2003
TLDR
People with GTS who attend clinics have a variety of psychological symptoms that are significantly more severe than controls, and GTS subjects scored highly on ratings of depression, state anxiety and obsessionality.
...
...