An international perspective on Tourette syndrome: selected findings from 3500 individuals in 22 countries

@article{Freeman2000AnIP,
  title={An international perspective on Tourette syndrome: selected findings from 3500 individuals in 22 countries},
  author={Roger Dee Freeman and Diane K. Fast and Larry J Burd and Jacob Kerbeshian and Mary May Robertson and Paul Sandor},
  journal={Developmental Medicine \& Child Neurology},
  year={2000},
  volume={42}
}
We have established a multisite, international database of 3500 individuals diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (TS). The male:female ratio is 4.3:1 for the total sample, with wide variation among sites; the male excess occurs at every site. Anger control problems, sleep difficulties, coprolalia, and self‐injurious behavior only reach impressive levels in individuals with comorbidity. Anger control problems are strongly correlated with comorbidity, regardless of site, region, or whether assessed… 
‘An international perspective on Tourette syndrome’
  • H. Rickards
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Developmental medicine and child neurology
  • 2001
TLDR
This is a population with a large proportion of people who have learning difficulties, a high proportion with ADHD, and a relatively low level of symptoms which have stronger phenomenological links with TS (coprolalia and OCB/OCD).
Tourette syndrome: review of literature
TLDR
The TS causes many damages as psychosocial and educational for the individual and the family, however, the diagnosis and the early treatment are able to minimize or cancel this damages.
The Gilles De La Tourette syndrome: the current status
  • M. Robertson
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Archives of Disease in Childhood: Education & Practice Edition
  • 2012
TLDR
Intriguing neuroanatomical and brain circuitry abnormalities have now been suggested in GTS; the most evidence is for cortical thinning and a reduction in the size of the caudate nucleus.
Prevalence of Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tics in the Population-Based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort
A Controlled Study of Psychopathology and Asssociated Symptoms in Tourette Syndrome
  • H. Rickards, M. Robertson
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The world journal of biological psychiatry : the official journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry
  • 2003
TLDR
People with GTS who attend clinics have a variety of psychological symptoms that are significantly more severe than controls, and GTS subjects scored highly on ratings of depression, state anxiety and obsessionality.
Progress in Genetic Studies of Tourette’s Syndrome
TLDR
The main purpose for this review will be to summarize the new genetic discoveries of TS based on novel genetic methods and strategies, such as genome-wide association studies (GWASs), whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing(WGS) and compared with other major psychiatric disorders to understand the current status of TS genetics and its relationship with other psychiatric disorders.
The Need for a Proper Definition of a “Treatment Refractoriness” in Tourette Syndrome
TLDR
In a significant number of cases TS patients present also behavioral comorbidities, and patients may be socially hindered because of both tics and behavioral abnormalities.
A phenomenological investigation of women with Tourette or other chronic tic disorders.
Canadian Guidelines for the Evidence-Based Treatment of Tic Disorders
  • P. Sandor, A. Carroll
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie
  • 2012
TLDR
Canadian treatment guidelines regarding the management of tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome (TS), have have been long overdue and there are variations in the availability of interventions and in clinical practices to justify the need for clinical guidelines that reflect the Canadian context.
...
...