An international case-control study on hypospadias the problem with variability and the beauty of diversity

@article{Klln1992AnIC,
  title={An international case-control study on hypospadias the problem with variability and the beauty of diversity},
  author={Bengt K{\"a}ll{\'e}n and Eduardo Enrique Castilla and Elisabeth Robert and P. A. L. Lancaster and Morten L. Kringelbach and Osvaldo M. Mutchinick and M L Martinez-frias and Pierpaolo Mastroiacovo},
  journal={European Journal of Epidemiology},
  year={1992},
  volume={8},
  pages={256-263}
}
The paper describes problems and advantages in an international cooperative study of a casecontrol design, aimed at investigating the possible association between exogenous hormones and hypospadias. The varying degrees of the ascertainment of specific exposures and risk factors, in spite of the use of a standardized questionnaire is illustrated. Definite support for the existence of recall or interviewer bias is presented. On the other hand, the multipopulation design offers possibilities to… CONTINUE READING