An increase in visceral fat is associated with a decrease in the taste and olfactory capacity

Abstract

INTRODUCTION Sensory factors may play an important role in the determination of appetite and food choices. Also, some adipokines may alter or predict the perception and pleasantness of specific odors. We aimed to analyze differences in smell-taste capacity between females with different weights and relate them with fat and fat-free mass, visceral fat, and several adipokines. MATERIALS AND METHODS 179 females with different weights (from low weight to morbid obesity) were studied. We analyzed the relation between fat, fat-free mass, visceral fat (indirectly estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis with visceral fat rating (VFR)), leptin, adiponectin and visfatin. The smell and taste assessments were performed through the "Sniffin' Sticks" and "Taste Strips" respectively. RESULTS We found a lower score in the measurement of smell (TDI-score (Threshold, Discrimination and Identification)) in obese subjects. All the olfactory functions measured, such as threshold, discrimination, identification and the TDI-score, correlated negatively with age, body mass index (BMI), leptin, fat mass, fat-free mass and VFR. In a multiple linear regression model, VFR mainly predicted the TDI-score. With regard to the taste function measurements, the normal weight subjects showed a higher score of taste functions. However a tendency to decrease was observed in the groups with greater or lesser BMI. In a multiple linear regression model VFR and age mainly predicted the total taste scores. DISCUSSION We show for the first time that a reverse relationship exists between visceral fat and sensory signals, such as smell and taste, across a population with different body weight conditions.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171204

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@inproceedings{FernandezGarcia2017AnII, title={An increase in visceral fat is associated with a decrease in the taste and olfactory capacity}, author={Jose Carlos Fernandez-Garcia and Juan Mar{\'i}a Alcaide and Concepci{\'o}n Santiago-Fern{\'a}ndez and MM. Roca-Rodriguez and Zaida Aguera and Rosa Mar{\'i}a Ba{\~n}os and Cristina Botella and Rafael de la Torre and Jos{\'e} Fern{\'a}ndez-Real and Gema Fruhbeck and Javier G{\'o}mez-Ambrosi and Susana Jim{\'e}nez-Murcia and Jos{\'e} M. Mench{\'o}n and Felipe F F Casanueva and Fernando Fern{\'a}ndez-Aranda and Francisco J Tinahones and Lourdes Garrido-S{\'a}nchez}, booktitle={PloS one}, year={2017} }