An improved PDF cloud scheme for climate simulations

  title={An improved PDF cloud scheme for climate simulations},
  author={Akira Kuwano-Yoshida and Takeshi Enomoto and W. Ohfuchi},
  journal={Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society},
An efficient grid‐scale cloud scheme for climate simulation is implemented in the atmospheric general circulation model for the Earth Simulator (AFES). The new cloud scheme uses statistical partial condensation using joint‐Gaussian probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the liquid water potential temperature and total water content, with standard deviations estimated by the moist Mellor–Yamada level‐2 turbulence scheme. It also adopts improved closure parameters based on large‐eddy… 

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