An extremely luminous X-ray outburst at the birth of a supernova

  title={An extremely luminous X-ray outburst at the birth of a supernova},
  author={Alicia Margarita Soderberg and Edo Berger and Kim L. Page and Patricia Schady and Jerod Parrent and David Pooley and X.-Y. Wang and Eran. O. Ofek and A. Cucchiara and Arne Rau and Eli Waxman and Joshua D. Simon and Douglas C.-J. Bock and Peter A. Milne and M. J. Page and John C. Barentine and Scott Douglas Barthelmy and Andrew P. Beardmore and Michael F. Bietenholz and Peter. J. Brown and Adam S. Burrows and David N. Burrows and G. Byrngelson and S. Bradley Cenko and Poonam Chandra and Jay R. Cummings and Derek B. Fox and Avishay Gal-yam and Neil A. Gehrels and Stefan Immler and Mansi M. Kasliwal and Albert K. H. Kong and Hans A. Krimm and Shrinivas R. Kulkarni and Thomas J. Maccarone and P{\'e}ter M{\'e}sz{\'a}ros and Ehud Nakar and P. T. O’Brien and Roderik A. Overzier and Massimiliano de Pasquale and Judith L. Racusin and Nanda Rea and Donald G. York},
Massive stars end their short lives in spectacular explosions—supernovae—that synthesize new elements and drive galaxy evolution. Historically, supernovae were discovered mainly through their ‘delayed’ optical light (some days after the burst of neutrinos that marks the actual event), preventing observations in the first moments following the explosion. As a result, the progenitors of some supernovae and the events leading up to their violent demise remain intensely debated. Here we report the… 

A surge of light at the birth of a supernova

The serendipitous discovery of a newly born, normal type IIb supernova (SN 2016gkg), which reveals a rapid brightening at optical wavelengths of about 40 magnitudes per day, suggests that it is appropriate to decouple the treatment of the shock propagation from the unknown mechanism that triggers the explosion.

Supernova Shock Breakout from a Red Supergiant

Observations of the supernova SNLS-04D2dc with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer space telescope reveal a radiative precursor from thesupernova shock before the shock reached the surface of the star and show the initial expansion of thestar at the beginning of the explosion.

X-rays from Core-collapse Supernovae

  • D. Pooley
  • Physics
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • 2013
Abstract Core-collapse supernovae can produce X-rays through a variety of mechanisms, which are briefly reviewed. Through a combination of targeted searches of specific supernovae and archival

Supernovae and Gamma-ray Bursts

  • P. Mazzali
  • Physics
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • 2011
Abstract The properties of the Supernovae discovered in coincidence with long-duration Gamma-ray Bursts and X-Ray Flashes are reviewed, and compared to those of SNe for which GRBs are not observed.

What are published X-ray light curves telling us about young supernova expansion?

Massive stars lose mass in the form of stellar winds and outbursts. This material accumulates around the star. When the star explodes as a supernova the resulting shock wave expands within this

Progenitor constraints for core-collapse supernovae from Chandra X-ray observations

The progenitors of hydrogen-poor core-collapse supernovae (SNe) of types Ib, Ic and IIb are believed to have shed their outer hydrogen envelopes either by extremely strong stellar winds,


Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time (≳days)


The first stars are the key to the formation of primitive galaxies, early cosmological reionization and chemical enrichment, and the origin of supermassive black holes. Unfortunately, in spite of

A likely inverse-Compton emission from the Type IIb SN 2013df

The discovery of a hard X-ray source that is associated with a Type II-b supernova and new evidence of the inverse-Compton emission during the early phase of a supernova is reported.


Neutrinos and gravitational waves are the only direct probes of the inner dynamics of a stellar core collapse. They are also the first signals to arrive from a supernova (SN) and, if detected,



Relativistic ejecta from X-ray flash XRF 060218 and the rate of cosmic explosions

Radio and X-ray observations of XRF 060218 (associated with supernova SN 2006aj), the second-nearest GRB identified until now, are reported, showing that this event is a hundred times less energetic but ten times more common than cosmological GRBs.

The association of GRB 060218 with a supernova and the evolution of the shock wave

A supernova is caught in the act of exploding, directly observing the shock break-out, which indicates that the GRB progenitor was a Wolf–Rayet star.

Radio emission from the unusual supernova 1998bw and its association with the γ-ray burst of 25 April 1998

Data accumulated over the past year strongly favour the idea that γ-ray bursts lie at cosmological distances, although the nature of the power source remains unclear. Here we report radio

GRB 060218: A Relativistic Supernova Shock Breakout

We show that the prompt and afterglow X-ray emission of GRB 060218, as well as its early (t ≲ 1 day) optical-UV emission, can be explained by a model in which a radiation-mediated shock propagates

The Physics of Supernova Explosions

The modern study of supernovae involves many aspects: presupernova stellar evolution, the physics of the explosions themselves, observations at all wavelengths of the outbursts and their remnants,

Supernovae, Jets, and Collapsars

We continue our study of the possible production of supernovae and a variety of high-energy transients by black hole formation in massive stars endowed with rotation: the "collapsar model." The black

An optical supernova associated with the X-ray flash XRF 060218

The data, combined with radio and X-ray observations, suggest that XRF 060218 is an intrinsically weak and soft event, rather than a classical GRB observed off-axis, which extends the GRB–supernova connection to X-rays flashes and fainter supernovae, implying a common origin.

X-ray bursts from type II supernovae

The dynamical and radiative relaxation of a red-giant 12 M/sub sun/ star responding to the propagation of a strong shock wave from a supernova explosion is investigated. A fully self-consistent

The Radio and X-Ray-Luminous Type Ibc Supernova 2003L

We present extensive radio observations of SN 2003L, the most luminous and energetic Type Ibc radio supernova with the exception of SN 1998bw (associated with GRB 980425). Observations from the Very

The evolution and explosion of massive stars

Like all true stars, massive stars are gravitationally confined thermonuclear reactors whose composition evolves as energy is lost to radiation and neutrinos. Unlike lower-mass stars (M≲8M⊙),