An exceptionally bright flare from SGR 1806–20 and the origins of short-duration γ-ray bursts

@article{Hurley2005AnEB,
  title={An exceptionally bright flare from SGR 1806–20 and the origins of short-duration $\gamma$-ray bursts},
  author={Kevin Hurley and Steven E. Boggs and D. M. Smith and Robert C. Duncan and Robert P. Lin and Andreas Zoglauer and S{\"a}m Krucker and G. J. Hurford and Hugh S. Hudson and Claudia Wigger and Wojtek Hajdas and Christopher Thompson and Igor G. Mitrofanov and A. B. Sanin and William V. Boynton and Chuck Fellows and A. von Kienlin and Giselher G. Lichti and Arne Rau and Thomas L. Cline},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2005},
  volume={434},
  pages={1098-1103}
}
Soft-γ-ray repeaters (SGRs) are galactic X-ray stars that emit numerous short-duration (about 0.1 s) bursts of hard X-rays during sporadic active periods. They are thought to be magnetars: strongly magnetized neutron stars with emissions powered by the dissipation of magnetic energy. Here we report the detection of a long (380 s) giant flare from SGR 1806–20, which was much more luminous than any previous transient event observed in our Galaxy. (In the first 0.2 s, the flare released as much… 

A giant γ-ray flare from the magnetar SGR 1806–20

Two classes of rotating neutron stars—soft γ-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars—are magnetars, whose X-ray emission is powered by a very strong magnetic field (B ≈ 1015 G). SGRs

Astrophysics: A certain flare

TLDR
Five papers in this issue report initial and follow-up observations of SGR1806–20, a soft γ-ray repeater in Sagittarius, which released a giant flare that has been called the brightest explosion ever recorded.

The Gamma-Ray Giant Flare from SGR 1806?20: Evidence of Crustal Cracking via Initial Timescales

Soft γ-ray repeaters (SGRs) are neutron stars that emit short (≲1 s) and energetic (≲1042 ergs s-1) bursts of soft γ-rays. Only four of them are currently known. Occasionally, SGRs have been observed

An expanding radio nebula produced by a giant flare from the magnetar SGR 1806–20

TLDR
From day 6 to day 19 after the flare from SGR 1806 - 20, a resolved, linearly polarized, radio nebula was seen, expanding at approximately a quarter of the speed of light, and to create this nebula, at least 4 × 1043 ergs of energy must have been emitted by the giant flare.

Magnetar Giant Flare Origin for GRB 200415A Inferred from a New Scaling Relation

Soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are a mainly Galactic population and originate from neutron stars with intense (B ≃ 1015 G) magnetic fields (magnetars). Occasionally, a giant flare occurs with

GRB 200415A: A Short Gamma-Ray Burst from a Magnetar Giant Flare?

The giant flares of soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) have long been proposed to contribute to at least a subsample of the observed short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this paper, we perform a

An X-ray burst from a magnetar enlightening the mechanism of fast radio bursts

Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are short (millisecond) radio pulses originating from enigmatic sources at extragalactic distances so far lacking a detection in other energy bands. Magnetized neutron stars

Quiet but still bright: XMM-Newton observations of the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR0526-66

SGR 0526–66 was the first soft gamma-ray repeater from which a giant flare was detected in 1979 March, suggesting the existence of magnetars, i.e. neutron stars powered by the decay of their

Superflares from magnetars revealing the GRB central engine

Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may be powered by the rotational energy of a millisecond magnetar. I argue that the GRB-driving magnetars lie at the high end of the distribution of magnetic

EXTENDED TAILS FROM SGR 1806–20 BURSTS

In 2004, SGR 1806–20 underwent a period of intense and long-lasting burst activity that included the giant flare of 2004 December 27—the most intense extra-solar transient event ever detected at
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References

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A giant γ-ray flare from the magnetar SGR 1806–20

Two classes of rotating neutron stars—soft γ-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars—are magnetars, whose X-ray emission is powered by a very strong magnetic field (B ≈ 1015 G). SGRs

A giant gamma-ray flare from the magnetar SGR 1806-20.

TLDR
It is reported that SGR 1806-20 emitted a giant flare on 27 December 2004, which would have resembled a short, hard gamma-ray burst, suggesting that flares from extragalactic SGRs may form a subclass of such bursts.

A giant periodic flare from the soft γ-ray repeater SGR1900+14

Soft γ-ray repeaters are transient sources of high-energy photons; they emit sporadic and short (about 0.1 s) bursts of ‘soft’ γ-rays during periods of activity, which are often broken by long

Gamma-Ray Observations of a Giant Flare From the Magnetar Sgr 1806-20

Magnetars comprise two classes of rotating neutron stars (Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars), whose X-ray emission is powered by an ultrastrong magnetic field, B {approx} 10{sup

An expanding radio nebula produced by a giant flare from the magnetar SGR 1806–20

TLDR
From day 6 to day 19 after the flare from SGR 1806 - 20, a resolved, linearly polarized, radio nebula was seen, expanding at approximately a quarter of the speed of light, and to create this nebula, at least 4 × 1043 ergs of energy must have been emitted by the giant flare.

Gamma-ray bursts from extragalactic Magnetar Flares

The prototype for events that we call MFs—“March Fifth” events or “Magnetar Flares”—was observed on March 5, 1979. There is evidence that MFs are powered by catastrophic magnetic instabilities in

An X-ray pulsar with a superstrong magnetic field in the soft γ-ray repeater SGR1806 − 20

Soft γ-ray repeaters (SGRs) emit multiple, brief (∼0.1-s), intense outbursts of low-energy γ-rays. They are extremely rare—three are known in our Galaxy and one in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Two

Detection of a radio counterpart to the 27 December 2004 giant flare from SGR 1806–20

TLDR
The energetics and the rapid decay of the radio source are not compatible with the afterglow model that is usually invoked for γ-ray bursts, and it is suggested that the rapidly decaying radio emission arises from the debris ejected during the explosion.

The Quiescent Counterpart of the Soft Gamma-Ray Repeater SGR 0526–66

It is now commonly believed that soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are magnetars—neutron stars powered by their magnetic fields. However, what differentiates these

Repeated injections of energy in the first 600 ms of the giant flare of SGR 1806–20

TLDR
The implied total energy is comparable to the stored magnetic energy in a magnetar based on the dipole magnetic field intensity, suggesting either that the energy release mechanism was extremely efficient or that the interior magnetic field is much stronger than the external dipole field.
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