An examination of the variation in maternal placentae across the genus Poeciliopsis (Poeciliidae)

  title={An examination of the variation in maternal placentae across the genus Poeciliopsis (Poeciliidae)},
  author={Lucia Kwan and Megan E. Fris and F. Helen Rodd and Locke Rowe and Laura Tuhela and Tami M Panhuis},
  journal={Journal of Morphology},
Placentae show considerable diversity in a number of nonmammalian, viviparous organisms, including amphibians, reptilian sauropsids, teleost fish, and chondrichthyes. However, the evolutionary processes driving the evolution of placenta are still debated. In teleost fishes, the genus Poeciliopsis (Poeciliidae) offers a rare opportunity for studying placental evolution: extensive placentation has evolved three independent times within the last 750,000 years and there is substantial interspecific… 

An examination of surface epithelium structures of the embryo across the genus Poeciliopsis (Poeciliidae)

Despite the differences in the surface epithelium of embryos across Poeciliopsis species and embryonic developmental stages, this variation was not associated with the level of postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning.

Molecular Signatures of Placentation and Secretion Uncovered in Poeciliopsis Maternal Follicles

It is suggested that all Poeciliopsis follicles are poised for placenta function but require expression of key genes to form secretory villi, rather than direct contact with maternal circulation.

Life-history evolution in the fish genus Poecilia (Poeciliidae: Cyprinodontiformes: subgenus Pamphorichthys): an evolutionary origin of extensive matrotrophy decoupled from superfetation

The occurence of extensive post-fertilization maternal provisioning (matrotrophy) in fish species in the subgenus Pamphorichthys that represents one of two independent origins of this adaptation in this genus is described.

New insights on folliculogenesis and follicular placentation in marine viviparous fish black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii)

A new type of folliculogenesis and follicular placentation is demonstrated in Sebastes schlegelii suggesting the high convergence in vertebrate placenta evolution.

The Genomes of the Livebearing Fish Species Poeciliopsis retropinna and Poeciliopsis turrubarensis Reflect Their Different Reproductive Strategies

It is concluded that the evolution of the placenta in the genus Poeciliopsis is accompanied by rapid evolution of genes involved in similar genomic pathways as found in mammals.

Increased superfetation precedes the evolution of advanced degrees of placentotrophy in viviparous fishes of the family Poeciliidae

Using a robust phylogenetic comparative method based on Ornstein–Uhlenbeck models of adaptive evolution and data from 36 poeciliid species, a clear causality pattern is detected and the evolution of extensive placentotrophy has been facilitated by the preceding evolution of more simultaneous broods.

Examination of the Trexler-DeAngelis Model of Maternal Provisioning Reveals That Matrotrophy Is Costly

The evolution of matrotrophy (post-fertilization maternal provisioning to developing embryos) has been explained through several hypotheses. Trexler and DeAngelis proposed in 2003 a theoretical model

Morphology of yolk and pericardial sacs in lecithotrophic and matrotrophic nutrition in poeciliid fishes

The morphology of the yolk and pericardial sacs in developing embryos of the lecithotrophic species Girardinus creolus, Gambusia puncticulata, Limia vittata, and Quintana atrizona, in comparison with the extreme matrotrophic Heterandria formosa are described to suggest that matrotrophy derives from leCithotrophy.

Morphological basis for maternal nutrient provision to embryos in the viviparous fish Ataeniobius toweri (Teleostei: Goodeidae)

In viviparous Mexican fishes of the family Goodeidae, embryos develop in the maternal ovarian lumen. They typically absorb maternal nutrients during gestation by means of “trophotaeniae,” that is,

The genome of the live-bearing fish Heterandria formosa implicates a role of conserved vertebrate genes in the evolution of placental fish

The results show that a substantial portion of positively selected genes have a function that correlates well with the morphological changes that form the placenta of H. formosa, compared to the corresponding tissue in non-placental poeciliids.



The evolution of placentas and superfetation in the fish genus Poecilia (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae: subgenera Micropoecilia and Acanthophacelus)

This study describes the life histories of six species within the genus Poecilia that includes the subgenera Micropoecilia and Acanthophacelus and demonstrates that extensive placentotrophy and superfetation, the ability to simultaneously carry more than one developing brood, have evolved within this clade.

Viviparity: The Maternal-Fetal Relationship in Fishes

The maternal-fetal trophic relationships in each of the major groups of fishes are systematically reviewed and Pertinent anatomical, histological, ultrastructural, developmental, physiological, and biochemical studies are considered.

Evolution of Placentas in the Fish Family Poeciliidae: An Empirical Study of Macroevolution

Hypotheses about the evolution of placentation are reviewed and empirical evidence in support for these hypotheses are examined by drawing on insights from the fish family Poeciliidae.

Evolution of vertebrate viviparity and specializations for fetal nutrition: A quantitative and qualitative analysis

Phylogenetic analyses indicate that viviparity has originated independently in more than 150 vertebrate lineages, including a minimum of 115 clades of extant squamate reptiles, and substantial matrotrophy has arisen at least 33 times in these v Viviparous clades.

The follicular placenta of the viviparous fish, Heterandria formosa. I. Ultrastructure and development of the embryonic absorptive surface

It is postulate that before the definitive epidermis differentiates, the entire embryonic surface constitutes the embryonic component of the follicular placenta and the absorptive surface epithelium appears to be the principle embryonic adaptation for maternal‐embryonic nutrient uptake in H. formosa.

Independent Origins and Rapid Evolution of the Placenta in the Fish Genus Poeciliopsis

It is argued that placentas are complex, that they have evolved multiple times in Poeciliopsis, and that there are closely related sister taxa that have either no placentes or intermediate stages in the evolution of a placenta.

Placental specializations of the mountain spiny lizard Sceloporus jarrovi

The examination of the late stage placenta via transmission electron microscopy reveals that S. jarrovi has a unique combination of placental characteristics, with unusual specializations for secretion and absorption.

Interpopulation variation in life-history traits of Poeciliopsis prolifica: implications for the study of placental evolution.

The results support the hypotheses that placentation is an adaptive reproductive strategy under high-resource conditions but that it may represent a cost under low-food conditions and highlight that age at maturity and reproductive allotment may be key life-history traits accompanying placental evolution.

1 The Maternal-Embryonic Relationship in Viviparous Fishes

Viviparity in the halfbeak genera Dermogenys and Nomorhamphus (Teleostei: Hemiramphidae)

Findings support the hypothesis that current species and generic limits may be artificial and underscores the potential of histological evidence for phylogenetic analysis of this group.