The effects of global change and globalization of trade on the biosphere spur an increase in bioinvasions and their subsequent impact on ecosystems. Continental invading bivalves are important because of their impact on artificially-constructed structures. Limnoperna fortunei was first found in the Neotropical region in 1991. Since then it has dispersed upstream in the Plata and Guaíba basins at a rate of 240 km y(-1). This species causes macrofouling in a manner similar to that caused by Dreissena polymorpha. This paper describes the biology of L. fortunei larvae from a hydroelectric power plant in South America. We suggest the importance of knowing the biology of the invading species and the need to consider the settlement patterns and densities of larvae in each of the sectors of the facility in order to achieve a sustainable prevention/control of macrofouling. This study acquires a global significance under the assumption that L. fortunei will eventually invade North America and Europe.