AIM OF THE STUDY Chandauli district is one of the less studied regions of India for its ethnobotanical values. The present paper synthesizes the first report related to the documentation and conservation of ethnomedicinal plants of Chandauli district and their socio-economic relationship with the forests and its resources. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations, preference and direct matrix ranking with traditional medicine practitioners. RESULTS The use of 40 medicinal plants belonging to 27 families was documented in the tribal communities of Chandauli district in India. These species were used in combination of some exotic species such as Foeniculum vulgare, Prosopis spicigera, Crataeva nurvala, Curcuma longa, Punica granatum, Aloe vera, Cocos nucifera, Ocimum sanctum and Allium cepa and some medicinal stones, minerals, salts, etc. Most of the plants (94.6%) were reportedly used to treat human diseases. CONCLUSIONS Documenting the eroding plants and associated indigenous knowledge can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the area. The principal threatening factors reported were deforestation (90%), agricultural expansion (85%) and overgrazing (53%).