An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile.

@article{McDonald2005AnET,
  title={An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile.},
  author={L. Clifford McDonald and George E. Killgore and Angela D. Thompson and Robert C. Owens and Sophia V Kazakova and Susan P. Sambol and Stuart Johnson and Dale N. Gerding},
  journal={The New England journal of medicine},
  year={2005},
  volume={353 23},
  pages={
          2433-41
        }
}
BACKGROUND Recent reports suggest that the rate and severity of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in the United States are increasing and that the increase may be associated with the emergence of a new strain of C. difficile with increased virulence, resistance, or both. METHODS A total of 187 C. difficile isolates were collected from eight health care facilities in six states (Georgia, Illinois, Maine, New Jersey, Oregon, and Pennsylvania) in which outbreaks of C. difficile-associated… Expand
Review: Clostridium difficile-Associated Disorders/Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Colitis: The Emergence of a More Virulent Era
TLDR
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TLDR
Control of hospital outbreaks caused by BI/NAP1/027 is difficult but possible through a combination of barrier precautions, environmental cleaning, and antimicrobial stewardship. Expand
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TLDR
The study findings indicate that significant proportions of C. difficile in swine are toxigenic and often are associated with antimicrobial resistance genes, although they are not resistant to drugs that are used to treat C.difficile infections. Expand
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TLDR
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Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic gram-positive bacillus. The C. difficile toxin pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) contains the toxin genes tcdA (encoding toxin A) and tcdB (toxin B) alongExpand
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TLDR
This particular epidemic strain of C. difficile belongs to toxinotype III, group BI, according to restriction-endonuclease analysis, NAP1 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and ribotype 027 by polymerase chain reaction ribotyping, and all have been shown to harbor certain putative virulence characteristics. Expand
Lack of Association between Clinical Outcome of Clostridium difficile Infections, Strain Type, and Virulence-Associated Phenotypes
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The data suggest that NAP1/027 isolates are not always associated with more severe disease, even though they may produce larger amounts of toxins. Expand
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The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is constantly changing and is influenced by antibiotic usage patterns, healthcare patient environment, and emergence of new strains. BetweenExpand
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The severity of C difficile-associated disease caused by NAP1/027 could result from hyperproduction of toxins A and B, and dissemination of this strain in North America and Europe could lead to important changes in the epidemiology of C diffusion disease. Expand
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The acquisition of the binary toxin, the possible increase in toxin production due to a mutated negative regulator and a decrease in the fitness cost as a result of lower levels of antibiotic resistance or other mechanisms may have led to the successful establishment of these new phenotypes, with potentially serious clinical implications. Expand
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