An enzyme immunoassay for estrone in swine serum was established. For this, beta-galactosidase from E. coli was conjugated through estrone-17 (O-carboxymethyl)oxime using a mixed anhydride reaction. The percentage of immunoreactive estrone-17 (O-carboxymethyl)oxime-beta-galactosidase conjugate was estimated to be about 70%. The recovery rate of estrone (25-500 pg) added to 0.05 ml of swine serum averaged 91.4%. The sensitivity of the present enzyme immunoassay was 5 pg/tube. The coefficients of variation (CV) were 5.9-8.2% (within assays) and 4.1-5.9% (between assays), respectively. Estrone values determined by the present enzyme immunoassay were highly correlated with those determined by radioimmunoassay (r = 0.99, P less than 0.005). This method of enzyme immunoassay was determined to be suitable for the routine assay of serum estrone.