An empirical comparison of pie vs. linear menus

Abstract

Menus are largely formatted in a linear fashion listing items from the top to bottom of the screen or window. <italic>Pull down menus</italic> are a common example of this format. Bitmapped computer displays, however, allow greater freedom in the placement, font, and general presentation of menus. A <italic>pie menu</italic> is a format where the items are placed along the circumference of a circle at equal radial distances from the center. Pie menus gain over traditional linear menus by reducing target seek time, lowering error rates by fixing the distance factor and increasing the target size in Fitts's Law, minimizing the drift distance after target selection, and are, in general, subjectively equivalent to the linear style.

DOI: 10.1145/57167.57182

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@inproceedings{Callahan1988AnEC, title={An empirical comparison of pie vs. linear menus}, author={Jonathan Callahan and David Hopkins and M T Weiser and Ben Shneiderman}, booktitle={CHI '88}, year={1988} }