An elephant-sized Late Triassic synapsid with erect limbs

@article{Sulej2019AnEL,
  title={An elephant-sized Late Triassic synapsid with erect limbs},
  author={Tomasz Sulej and Grzegorz Niedźwiedzki},
  journal={Science},
  year={2019},
  volume={363},
  pages={78 - 80}
}
A proto-mammalian giant Early terrestrial amniotes evolved into two groups: the sauropsids, which led to the bird and dinosaur lineages, and the synapsids, which led to mammals. Synapsids were diverse during the Permian but were greatly reduced after the end-Permian extinction (about 252 million years ago). The few groups that survived into the Triassic were mostly small and retained a sprawling gait. Sulej and Niedźwiedzki, however, describe a dicynodont from the Late Triassic of Poland that… 
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A re-assessment of the oldest therapsid Raranimus confirms its status as a basal member of the clade and fills Olson's gap.
TLDR
CT scanning techniques are used to digitally reconstruct the bones and trigeminal canals of the snout of Raranimus in 3D and confirm that RarAnimus shares a high number of synapomorphies with more derived therapsids and is the only theraapsid known so far to display a "pelycosaur"-like maxillary canal bearing a long caudal alveolar canal that gives off branches at regular intervals.
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