An effective method for skin blood flow measurement using local heat combined with electrical stimulation

  title={An effective method for skin blood flow measurement using local heat combined with electrical stimulation},
  author={Abdul-Majeed Almalty and Jerrold Scott Petrofsky and Bassam Al-Naami and Jamal I. Al-Nabulsi},
  journal={Journal of Medical Engineering \& Technology},
  pages={663 - 669}
Electrical stimulation (ES) is a modality used to increase skin blood flow (SBF) and to aid in wound healing. A greater SBF in non wounded skin is induced if ES is used in a warm environment compared to a thermoneutral environment, where ES is usually applied. Therefore, in this paper, a method to investigate the effect of local heating and ES on the SBF is developed. A total of 33 males (18–40 years) were divided into group G (n = 15) who received the ES during a global heating protocol and… 

The ability of the skin to absorb heat; The effect of repeated exposure and age

In younger subjects but not older subjects, there appears to be some degree of acclimatization with an enhanced blood flow response in the first day that was protective to the skin which was not seen in repeated heat exposure.

The interrealtionship between locally applied heat, ageing and skin blood flow on heat transfer into and from the skin

A consequence of ageing is reduced excess BF in response to thermal stress increasing susceptibility to thermal damage, which must be considered in modelling of BF.

Short-term and long-term effects of electrical stimulation on skin properties.

Electrical stimulation caused temporary increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) with no effects on other skin properties, and there were no long-term effects in any tested variable.

The effect of moist air on skin blood flow and temperature in subjects with and without diabetes.

These data show that individuals with diabetes do not tolerate moist, warm air above 50% humidity as well as controls without diabetes.

The interrelationship between air temperature and humidity as applied locally to the skin: The resultant response on skin temperature and blood flow with age differences

In older subjects, warm humid air caused a greater rise in skin temperature with less protective effect of blood flow to protect the skin from overheating than is found in younger subjects.

Local heating of trigger points reduces neck and plantar fascia pain.

The effect of single cell heat ontrigger points of the body on pain relief was significantly better in the heat groups than in the sham groups, which is significant because using heat on trigger points could be an alternative to dry needling performed by healthcare professionals.

Electrical stimulation increases blood flow and haemoglobin levels in acute cutaneous wounds without affecting wound closure time: evidenced by non‐invasive assessment of temporal biopsy wounds in human volunteers

It is shown that DW increases blood flow and haemoglobin levels in acute healing wounds without affecting wound closure time and may have potential application in enhancing acute cutaneous healing.


TENS therapy is proven to help wound healing and will be able to stimulate the secretion of endorphin hormone so the patients who received TENS intervention can be more relaxed and feel better as the pain is relieved.



Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation: the effect of intensity on local and distal cutaneous blood flow and skin temperature in healthy subjects.

The effect of TENS on cutaneous blood flow depends on whether muscle activity is induced, and low-frequency TENS applied above the motor threshold significantly increases local cutaneousBlood flow.

Reflex control of active cutaneous vasodilation by skin temperature in humans.

Reflex effects of changes in whole body skin temperature (Tsk) on cutaneous vasculature are mediated through the vasoconstrictor or the active vasodilator arm of the sympathetic nervous system, suggesting that at rest, with a normal internal temperature, reflex effects of raising Tsk on SkBF aremediated through vasoconStrictor withdrawal.

Effects of electrical stimulation on skin blood flow in controls and in and around stage III and IV wounds in hairy and non hairy skin.

In wounds, where BF is high due to bradykinin and cytokine release, the vasoconstrictor tone is not present and electrical stimulation causes a large increase in circulation which lasts after stimulation is over.

Nitric oxide and neurally mediated regulation of skin blood flow during local heating.

There are at least two independent mechanisms contributing to the rise in SkBF during nonpainful local heating: a fast-responding vasodilator system mediated by the axon reflexes and a more slowly responding vasodILator system that relies on local production of NO.

A randomized control study on the effect of biphasic electrical stimulation in a warm room on skin blood flow and healing rates in chronic wounds of patients with and without diabetes.

  • D. LawsonJ. Petrofsky
  • Medicine
    Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • 2007
Using stimulation in a warm room significantly increased healing and skin blood flow in people with diabetes and those without diabetes using biphasic current.

Effects of chronic sympathectomy on locally mediated cutaneous vasodilation in humans.

The data indicate that endothelial function in human skin is largely preserved after sympathectomy, and suggests that the nitric oxide-dependent portion of the vasodilator response to local heating may be accelerated in sympatheCTomized limbs.

Effect of burst-mode transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on peripheral vascular resistance.

The results demonstrate that the effects of TENS on circulation depend on stimulation intensity, and call into question the idea that postganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers are stimulated when TENS is applied at clinically relevant intensities to people without symptoms of cardiovascular or neuromuscular pathology.

Role of nitric oxide in the vascular effects of local warming of the skin in humans.

The mechanism of cutaneous vasodilation by local warming requires NOS generation of NO, and effects of NO synthase (NOS) inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on Vasodilation induced byLocal warming of skin in six subjects were examined.