CaCO₃ templated micro-beads and -capsules for bioapplications.
- Dmitry Volodkin
- Advances in colloid and interface science
Porous spherical calcium carbonate (PS-CaCO(3)), in contrast to regular calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)), which has a cuboidal particle shape, has a characteristic spherical particle shape with a large number of porous, sliver crystals. The effect of PS-CaCO(3) as a drug carrier on intranasal insulin absorption was investigated in cynomolgus monkeys and healthy human volunteers. Each insulin formulation (powder) containing PS-CaCO(3) or regular CaCO(3) was administered intranasally. Serum insulin and glucose levels after administration were evaluated. The insulin absorption after intranasal administration with each CaCO(3) was found to be much more rapid than that after subcutaneous administration. The serum insulin level after intranasal insulin delivery (16 U per monkey) with PS-CaCO(3) showed a higher C(max) (403.5 microU/mL) and shorter T(max) (0.167 h) when compared with regular CaCO(3). The serum glucose level reduction rate after intranasal delivery using PS-CaCO(3) was faster than that of regular CaCO(3), reflecting the difference in absorption rates. Following repeated intranasal administrations for 4 weeks in monkeys, no toxicity was observed even with a maximum insulin dose level of 25 U. Furthermore, the intranasal insulin absorption rate with PS-CaCO(3) in healthy humans was also observed to be considerably faster than that with regular CaCO(3). Effects of PS-CaCO(3) on a more effective absorption behavior of insulin were considered to be the result of a greater affinity between the nasal mucosa layer and PS-CaCO(3), which is closely related to its structural characteristics. Thus, intranasal insulin delivery using PS-CaCO(3) is thought to be a safe and highly available system enabling more effective insulin absorption behavior with the appearance of endogenous postprandial insulin secretion in healthy humans. We believe that our intranasal insulin delivery system enabling a rapid and short-acting pharmacological effect against postprandial hyperglycemia will be more beneficial than pulmonary insulin delivery systems in the treatment of diabetes.