An astrocyte bridge from synapse to blood flow

  title={An astrocyte bridge from synapse to blood flow},
  author={Rheinallt Parri and Vincenzo Crunelli},
  journal={Nature Neuroscience},
Neural activity locally increases cerebral blood flow to deliver oxygen to working neurons. A new paper shows that astrocytes can detect activity at glutamatergic synapses via calcium changes in astrocytic endfeet and directly couple it to blood flow in vitro and in vivo. 
Calcium Dynamics in Cortical Astrocytes and Arterioles During Neurovascular Coupling
This study supports the concept that astrocytic Ca2+ changes signal the cerebral microvasculature and indicates the novel concept that this communication occurs through the suppression of arteriolar [Ca2+]i oscillations and corresponding vasomotion.
Astrocytes act as signal transducer in neuronal activation and cerebral arteriole vasodilation
A novel mechanism in which activated neurons indirectly trigger vasodilation through the coupling of astrocytes with these neurons and adjacent cerebral arterioles is suggested, which confirms the key importance played by the neuron-to-astrocyte signalling pathway in regulating local blood flow of cerebral arteriola.
Blood vessels and parkinsonism.
The potential implications of vascular-related phenomena with mechanisms of neuronal damage in PD are discussed.
Molecular Mechanisms of Astrocyte Vesicle Fusion at Synaptic Interfaces
It is shown that Syt7 and the synaptogenic factor Hevin are developmentally regulated and partially co-localise in cultured astrocytes, and this data suggest that SyT7 may regulate vesicular Hevin release from astroCytes, which in turn shapes how neuronal circuits develop.
Intercellular Signaling Pathway among Endothelia, Astrocytes and Neurons in Excitatory Neuronal Damage
It is found that kainic acid administration induces the expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in venous endothelial cells and the prostaglandsin E2 (PGE2) receptor prostag landin E receptor (EP)-3 on astrocytes.
Neurovascular Repair After Stroke
This chapter explores the interactions of the cells in the vascular neural network, how they are altered in the context of stroke, the natural mechanisms of neurovascular repair, and various therapies being investigated to enhance the process.
Spatiotemporal Evolution of Functional Hemodynamic Changes and Their Relationship to Neuronal Activity
The spatiotemporal evolution of hemodynamic responses in rat somatosensory cortex to electrical hindpaw stimulation is investigated and results imply early microvascular changes in volume and oxygenation localize to activated neural columns, and that spatial specificity will be optimal within a 2- to 3-sec window after neuronal activation.
Extended spiking neural P systems with excitatory and inhibitory astrocytes
This work investigates an extended model of spiking neural P systems incorporating astrocytes and their excitatory or inhibitory influence on axons between neurons and can easily model Boolean gates like NAND-gates as well as discrete amplifiers.
Rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine correlates with astroglial plasticity in the hippocampus
Investigating whether the fast antidepressant action of ketamine is reflected in a rapid alteration of the astrocytes’ morphology in a genetic animal model of depression found it to be possible.


Neuron-to-astrocyte signaling is central to the dynamic control of brain microcirculation
In vivo blockade of glutamate-mediated [Ca2+]i elevations in astrocytes reduced the blood flow increase in the somatosensory cortex during contralateral forepaw stimulation and showed that neuron-to-astrocyte signaling is a key mechanism in functional hyperemia.
Dopaminergic regulation of cerebral cortical microcirculation
It is reported that dopamine, a neurotransmitter normally associated with neuromodulatory actions, may directly affect local cortical blood flow and it is shown that dopaminergic axons innervate the intraparenchymal microvessels.
Prostaglandins stimulate calcium-dependent glutamate release in astrocytes
It is shown that coactivation of the AMPA/kainate and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) on astrocytes stimulates these cells to release glutamate through a Ca2+-dependent process mediated by prostaglandins, revealing a new pathway of regulated transmitter release from astroCytes and outlining the existence of an integrated glutamatergic cross-talk between neurons and astroicytes in situ.
Glutamate uptake into astrocytes stimulates aerobic glycolysis: a mechanism coupling neuronal activity to glucose utilization.
It is reported that glutamate, in addition to its receptor-mediated actions on neuronal excitability, stimulates glycolysis--i.e., glucose utilization and lactate production--in astrocytes and is consistent with data obtained from functional brain imaging studies indicating local nonoxidative glucose utilization during physiological activation.
Serotonin neurons project to small blood vessels in the brain.
Evidence is provided for the existence of a serotonin-containing pathway seemingly analogous to the neuronal projection that terminates on small parenchymal blood vessels from noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus.
Glia: listening and talking to the synapse
  • P. Haydon
  • Biology
    Nature Reviews Neuroscience
  • 2001
It is no longer appropriate to consider solely neuron–neuron connections; it is also necessary to develop a view of the intricate web of active connections among glial cells, and between glia and neurons.
Glial calcium: homeostasis and signaling function.
By controlling gap junction conductance, Ca2+ waves may define the limits of functional glial networks, and there is some evidence that glial [Ca2+]i waves can affect neurons.