Levels of the enzyme N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) and a mutation of cholecystokinin (CCK) gene appear to be independently associated with panic disorder. We explored whether there was an association of NAG levels and a CCK mutation identified in a group of panic disorder patients. NAG was measured in 12 panic disorder patients who had a mutation of the CCK gene and 17 who did not. Urine for NAG was collected at baseline and after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. NAG levels were lower at all three times in the patients that did not have the CCK mutation. The difference between the two groups was significant at week 6 (P < 0.02), and showed a trend toward a difference at baseline (P < 0.15).