Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of bacteremia following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 720 adult patients
Fifty-three patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation received antimicrobial prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin with or without erythromycin and low dose intravenous amphotericin B. Eight patients remained afebrile throughout the neutropenic period. All other patients had one or more febrile episodes. The median time to fever after the onset of neutropenia was 7 days. There were no gram-negative organisms isolated from blood cultures during any of these episodes whereas gram-positive organisms were isolated in 28. There was one death in this series associated with sepsis. The use of low-dose prophylactic parenteral amphotericin did not prevent the subsequent successful use of full dose amphotericin for antibiotic-resistant fever. Ciprofloxacin effectively prevents gram-negative sepsis. The addition of erythromycin does little to prevent gram-positive sepsis. The use of regimens with agents with activity against gram-positive organisms is appropriate initial treatment of all febrile neutropenic episodes.