An ancient recipe for flood-basalt genesis

  title={An ancient recipe for flood-basalt genesis},
  author={M. Jackson and R. Carlson},
Large outpourings of basaltic lava have punctuated geological time, but the mechanisms responsible for the generation of such extraordinary volumes of melt are not well known. Recent geochemical evidence suggests that an early-formed reservoir may have survived in the Earth’s mantle for about 4.5 billion years (ref. 2), and melts of this reservoir contributed to the flood basalt emplaced on Baffin Island about 60 million years ago. However, the volume of this ancient mantle domain and whether… Expand
Kimberlites reveal 2.5-billion-year evolution of a deep, isolated mantle reservoir
Gl Globally distributed kimberlites have their origins in a single, homogeneous early Earth reservoir that was subsequently perturbed, probably by subduction along the margins of Pangaea, around 200 million years ago, revealing a long-lived and globally extensive mantle reservoir that underwent subsequent disruption. Expand
Early differentiation of the bulk silicate Earth as recorded by the oldest mantle reservoir
Abstract An emerging challenge for understanding the Earth system is to determine the relative roles of early planetary processes versus progressive differentiation in shaping the Earth's chemicalExpand
Preservation of Earth-forming events in the tungsten isotopic composition of modern flood basalts
High-precision tungsten isotopic data from rocks from two large igneous provinces, the North Atlantic Igneous Province and the Ontong Java Plateau, reveal preservation to the Phanerozoic of tung sten isotopic heterogeneities in the mantle, indicating that portions of the mantle that formed during Earth's primary accretionary period have survived to the present. Expand
Chemical Geodynamics in a Non-chondritic Earth
Over the past 30 years, chemical geodynamic models held that terrestrial silicate reservoirs differentiated from a primitive mantle (PM) with chondritic abundances of refractory lithophile elements.Expand
Results of Basement Drilling on Oceanic LIPs
In the first decade of the 21st century, two oceanic large igneous provinces (LIPs), the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) and the Shatsky Rise, were drilled to recover basement lavas. Coring data show thatExpand
Collision-induced post-plateau volcanism: Evidence from a seamount on Ontong Java Plateau
Abstract Many seamounts on the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) occur near the Stewart Arch, a topographic high that extends parallel to the North Solomon Trench along the southern margins of the plateau.Expand
The composition of mantle plumes and the deep Earth
Highlights • Mantle plumes have broadly distinctive depleted and enriched compositions. • The Earth's lower mantle has a non-chondritic composition. • The deep mantle has large planetary-scaleExpand
Mantle geochemistry: Insights from ocean island basalts
The geochemical study of the Earth’s mantle provides important constraints on our understanding of the formation and evolution of Earth, its internal structure, and the mantle dynamics. The bulkExpand
Low-He/He sublithospheric mantle source for the most magnesian magmas of the Karoo large igneous province
The massive outpourings of Karoo and Ferrar continental flood basalts (CFBs) ~180 Ma ago mark the initial Jurassic rifting stages of the Gondwana supercontinent. The origin and sources of theseExpand
Crustal evolution and mantle dynamics through Earth history
  • J. Korenaga
  • Geology, Medicine
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2018
A tentative hypothesis is presented for the evolution of mantle dynamics and its relation to surface environment; the early onset of plate tectonics and gradual mantle hydration are responsible not only for the formation of continental crust but also for its preservation as well as its emergence above sea level. Expand


Physical and chemical evidence on the cause and source characteristics of flood basalt volcanism
Flood basalt volcanism, defined by huge accumulations of magma erupted over relatively short time intervals, is a primary means of extracting melts from the mantle to form new crust. Even though theExpand
Evidence for the survival of the oldest terrestrial mantle reservoir
The combined helium-, lead- and Nd-isotopic compositions in Baffin Island and West Greenland lavas suggest that their source is the most ancient accessible reservoir in the Earth’s mantle, and it may be parental to all mantle reservoirs that give rise to modern volcanism. Expand
Petrological evidence for secular cooling in mantle plumes
It is shown that the MgO and FeO contents of Galapagos-related lavas and their primary magmas have decreased since the Cretaceous period, and this is interpreted to reflect episodic flow from lower-mantle domains that are lithologically and geochemically heterogeneous. Expand
Depleted mantle wedge and sediment fingerprint in unusual basalts from the Manihiki Plateau, central Pacific Ocean
Numerous large igneous provinces formed in the Pacifi c Ocean during Early Cretaceous time, but their origins and relations are poorly understood. We present new geochronological and geochemical dataExpand
Mantle plumes from ancient oceanic crust
We propose the following model for the origin of "hot-spot" volcanism: Oceanic crust is returned to the mantle during subduction. It is separated from the surrounding peridotite, it sinks into theExpand
A depleted, not ideally chondritic bulk Earth : The explosive-volcanic basalt loss hypothesis
Abstract It has long been customary to assume that in the bulk composition of the Earth, all refractory-lithophile elements (including major oxides Al2O3 and CaO, all of the REE, and theExpand
Petrogenesis of the Flood-Basalt Sequence at Noril'sk, North Central Siberia
The 3500-m-thick sequence of volcanic rocks at Noril'sk, formed during a brief interval (∼1 m.y.) at the Permian/Triassic time boundary (∼251 Ma), represents the earliest part of the ∼6500-m-thickExpand
Diamonds sampled by plumes from the core–mantle boundary
Diamonds are formed under high pressure more than 150 kilometres deep in the Earth’s mantle and are brought to the surface mainly by volcanic rocks called kimberlites. Several thousand kimberlitesExpand
Lower Cretaceous Volcanic Rocks on Continental Margins and Their Relationship to the Kerguelen Plateau
Widespread Lower Cretaceous magmatism occurred along the Indian-Australian/Antarctic margins, and in the juvenile Indian Ocean, during the rifting of eastern Gondwana. The formation of this magmaticExpand
A new geochemical model for the Earth's mantle inferred from 146Sm–142Nd systematics
Abstract New measurements of 142 Nd/ 144 Nd in kimberlites, carbonatites, komatiites, ocean island basalts from Pitcairn, and mid-ocean ridge basalts from the Pacific and Indian Oceans show noExpand