An ancient divergence among the bacteria

  title={An ancient divergence among the bacteria},
  author={William E. Balch and Linda J. Magrum and George E. Fox and Ralph S. Wolfe and Carl R. Woese},
  journal={Journal of Molecular Evolution},
SummaryThe 16S ribosomal RNAs from two species of methanogenic bacteria, the mesophileMethanobacterium ruminantium and the thermophileMethanobacterium thermoautotropbicum, have been characterized in terms of the oligonucleotides produced by digestion withT1 ribonuclease. These two organisms are found to be sufficiently related that they can be considered members of the same genus or family. However, they bear only slight resemblance to “typical” Procaryotic genera; such asEschericbia, Bacillus… 

Zellwandstrukturen bei Methan-Bakterien

None of the representatives of the four genera of methanogenic bacteria available in pure culture were found to contain the typical cell-wall polymer (murein, peptidoglycan) found in all other bacteria and cyanobacteria, indicating a very early divergence of the methanogens from all other procaryotes.

Are extreme halophiles actually “bacteria”?

SummaryComparative cataloging of the 16S rRNA ofHalobacterium halobium indicates that the organism did not arise, as a halophilic adaptation, from some typical bacterium. Rather,H. halobium is a

[Archaeons--still unknown microorganisms].

Recent advances in Archaea biology focusing mainly on archaeal morphology, metabolism and reproduction are presented.

Unusual modification patterns in the transfer ribonucleic acids of archaebacteria

The transfer RNA modification patterns of the archaebacteria are distinct from those of typical eubacteria (Escherichia coli) and typical eukaryotes (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), although they are somewhat more similar to the latter than the former.

Squalenes, phytanes and other isoprenoids as major neutral lipids of methanogenic and thermoacidophilic “archaebacteria”

The neutral lipid compositions from these bacteria, many of which exist in evironmental conditions like those described for the various evolutionary stages of the archean ecology, resemble the isoprenoid distribution isolated from ancient sediments and petroleum, and may have major implications to biological and biogeochemical evolution.

The defining genomic and predicted metabolic features of the Acetobacterium genus

The findings suggest that outside of the reductive acetyl-CoA (Wood-Ljungdahl) pathway, the Acetobacterium genus is more phylogenetically and metabolically diverse than expected, with metabolism of fructose, lactate, and H2:CO2 constant across the genus, and ethanol, methanol, caffeates, and 2,3-butanediol varying across the species.

Diversity, ecology and evolution of Archaea

How genomes belonging to uncultured groups from the environment elucidate the metabolic capabilities of the Archaea and their ecological roles are discussed, while also expanding the view of the tree of life and of eukaryogenesis.

Bioprospecting Archaea: Focus on Extreme Halophiles

This chapter provides a general overview on bioprospecting Archaea, with a particular focus on extreme halophiles, and explores aspects such as diversity, ecology, screening techniques and biotechnology.

The amino acid sequence of the peptide moiety of the pseudomurein from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum

The amino acid sequence of the peptide subunits of the peptide moiety of the sacculus polymer (pseudomurein) of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was elucidated by analysing overlapping peptides

The molecular dimension of microbial species: 3. Comparative genomics of Synechococcus strains with different light responses and in situ diel transcription patterns of associated putative ecotypes in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat

In situ diel transcription patterns of genes revealed that expression is fine-tuned to the different light environments experienced by ecotypes prevalent at various depths in the mat, suggesting that strains of closely related PEs have different genomic adaptations that enable them to inhabit distinct ecological niches while living in close proximity within a microbial community.



A comparison of the 16S ribosomal RNAs from mesophilic and thermophilic bacilli: Some modifications in the sanger method for RNA sequencing

SummaryTwo modifications in the Sanger two dimensional electrophoretic procedure for RNA analysis are reported. One increases resolution on the primary fingerprint to the point that digests of large

Comparative Cataloging of 16S Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid: Molecular Approach to Procaryotic Systematics

A molecular approach to systematics is shown to give results in essential agreement with traditional techniques for this group of organisms, and appears well suited for higher order classification, an area which has been difficult to approach withTraditional techniques.

Phylogenetic measurement in procaryotes by primary structural characterization

Oligonucleotide cataloguing has been used to characterize a number of 5S RNA species from various Procaryotes and it is shown that the conventionally accepted classification of these organisms, which places the first three in the order Eubacteriales, and the last in theOrder Pseudomonadales, is not phylogenetically valid.

Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicus sp. n., an Anaerobic, Autotrophic, Extreme Thermophile

The isolation of a new methanogenic bacterium, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicus sp. n., is described. Successful isolation required a medium containing inorganic salts, an atmosphere consisting

Partial sequences of 16S rRNA and the phylogeny of blue-green algae and chloroplasts

Partial sequence analyses of 16S ribosomal RNAs of blue-green algae and chloroplasts reveal that blue- green algae are typically prokaryotic and related to the bacilli, and that euglenoid and red algal chloroplast may have arisen independently.

Conservation of primary structure in 16S ribosomal RNA

Here the authors begin to define 16S rRNA function by localising the major conserved regions in the molecule through a comparative analysis of 27 prokaryotic 16 S rRNA primary structures.


Hybrid 30S Ribosomal Particles reconstituted from Components of Different Bacterial Origins

Functional 30S ribosomal subunits can be reconstructed from the 16S ribosomal RNA of one species of bacteria and the ribosomal proteins from a distantly related species.

New approach to the cultivation of methanogenic bacteria: 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (HS-CoM)-dependent growth of Methanobacterium ruminantium in a pressureized atmosphere

A very sensitive and precise requirement for HS-CoM in the nutrition of this fastidious anaerobe is revealed.